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Exome Chip Meta-analysis Fine Maps Causal Variants and Elucidates the Genetic Architecture of Rare Coding Variants in Smoking and Alcohol Use

CHD Exome+ Consortium & Consortium for Genetics of Smoking Behaviour, Jun 1 2019, In : Biological Psychiatry. 85, 11, p. 946-955 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Behavioral Genetics
Genome-Wide Association Study

Experience introducing physician assistant students into a medical student emergency medicine clerkship

Turner, J., Corson-Knowles, D., Besinger, B., Rebman, R., Hobgood, C. & Palmer, M., Mar 1 2019, In : Journal of Interprofessional Education and Practice. 14, p. 1-5 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

medical student

Expert Consensus Document on Pulmonary Metastasectomy

Handy, J. R., Bremner, R. M., Crocenzi, T. S., Detterbeck, F. C., Fernando, H. C., Fidias, P. M., Firestone, S., Johnstone, C. A., Lanuti, M., Litle, V. R., Kesler, K., Mitchell, J. D., Pass, H. I., Ross, H. J. & Varghese, T. K., Feb 1 2019, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 107, 2, p. 631-649 19 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Expired Tidal Volume Variation in Extremely Low Birth Weight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants on Volume-Targeted Ventilation

Wong, S., Wang, H., Tepper, R., Sokol, G. M. & Rose, R., Jan 1 2019, In : Journal of Pediatrics.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Very Low Birth Weight Infant
Tidal Volume
Low Birth Weight Infant
Birth Weight

Exploring the relationship between polygenic risk for cannabis use, peer cannabis use and the longitudinal course of cannabis involvement

Johnson, E. C., Tillman, R., Aliev, F., Meyers, J. L., Salvatore, J. E., Anokhin, A. P., Dick, D. M., Edenberg, H., Kramer, J. R., Kuperman, S., McCutcheon, V. V., Nurnberger, J., Porjesz, B., Schuckit, M. A., Tischfield, J., Bucholz, K. K. & Agrawal, A., Jan 1 2019, (Accepted/In press) In : Addiction.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Odds Ratio
Genome-Wide Association Study
Open Access
bromochloroacetic acid
dibromoacetic acid

Extracellular signal-regulated kinases mediate the enhancing effects of inflammatory mediators on resurgent currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons

Wu, B., McDermott, J. S., Krajewski, J. L., Knopp, K. L., Nisenbaum, E. S., Cummins, T. & Tan, Z. Y., Mar 1 2019, In : Molecular Pain. 15

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
Spinal Ganglia
Protein Kinase C
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Ex vivo Dynamics of Human Glioblastoma Cells in a Microvasculature-on-a-Chip System Correlates with Tumor Heterogeneity and Subtypes

Xiao, Y., Kim, D., Dura, B., Zhang, K., Yan, R., Li, H., Han, E., Ip, J., Zou, P., Liu, J., Chen, A. T., Vortmeyer, A., Zhou, J. & Fan, R., Apr 17 2019, In : Advanced Science. 6, 8, 1801531.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
blood vessels
Blood vessels
Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors
Imaging techniques
Benzoic Acid

Factors Associated with Contraceptive Use in Women Who Have Sex with Women and Men: An Exploratory Analysis

Baldwin, A., Schick, V. R., Smith, N. K., Dodge, B. M., Uriarte, J. & Fortenberry, J., Jan 1 2019, In : Journal of Bisexuality.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Factors Associated With Histologic Response in Adult Patients With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

Loomba, R., Sanyal, A. J., Kowdley, K. V., Terrault, N., Chalasani, N., Abdelmalek, M. F., McCullough, A. J., Shringarpure, R., Ferguson, B., Lee, L., Chen, J., Liberman, A., Shapiro, D. & Neuschwander-Tetri, B. A., Jan 1 2019, In : Gastroenterology. 156, 1, p. 88-95.e5

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Alanine Transaminase
International Normalized Ratio
Aspartate Aminotransferases

Factors in Premature Infants Associated with Low Risk of Developing Retinopathy of Prematurity

for the e-ROP Cooperative Group, Feb 1 2019, In : JAMA Ophthalmology. 137, 2, p. 160-166 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Retinopathy of Prematurity
Premature Infants
Gestational Age
Birth Weight

Fast Multi-Task SCCA Learning with Feature Selection for Multi-Modal Brain Imaging Genetics

Du, L., Liu, K., Yao, X., Risacher, S. L., Han, J., Guo, L., Saykin, A. & Shen, L., Jan 21 2019, Proceedings - 2018 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine, BIBM 2018. Schmidt, H., Griol, D., Wang, H., Baumbach, J., Zheng, H., Callejas, Z., Hu, X., Dickerson, J. & Zhang, L. (eds.). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 356-361 6 p. 8621298. (Proceedings - 2018 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine, BIBM 2018).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Feature extraction

F-box protein-32 down-regulates small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 2 in diabetic mouse atria

Ling, T. Y., Yi, F., Lu, T., Wang, X. L., Sun, X., Willis, M., Wu, L. Q., Shen, W. K., Adelman, J. P. & Lee, H. C., Jan 1 2019, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. 294, 11, p. 4160-4168 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Molecular biology
Nucleic acids
Medical problems

FDG-PET patterns associated with underlying pathology in corticobasal syndrome

Pardini, M., Huey, E. D., Spina, S., Kreisl, W. C., Morbelli, S., Wassermann, E. M., Nobili, F., Ghetti, B. & Grafman, J., Mar 5 2019, In : Neurology. 92, 10, p. e1121-e1135

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Positron-Emission Tomography
Gyrus Cinguli
Basal Ganglia
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

Feasibility and safety of lumbar puncture in the Parkinson's disease research participants: Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative (PPMI)

The Parkinson's Progression Markers InitiativeSteering Committee, Study Cores, Site Investigators, Coordinators & Industry and Scientific Advisory Board, Jan 1 2019, In : Parkinsonism and Related Disorders.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Spinal Puncture
Parkinson Disease

Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Genotype and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

Schwantes-An, T. H., Liu, S., Stedman, M., Decker, B., Wetherill, L., Edenberg, H., Vatta, M., Foroud, T., Chertow, G. M. & Moe, S., Jan 1 2019, (Accepted/In press) In : American Journal of Nephrology. p. 125-132 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Renal Dialysis
Cardiovascular Diseases
Heart Failure

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic spindle cell follicular thyroid carcinoma: A case report

Chen, Y. H., Perrino, C. M., Cheng, L. & Wu, H., Jan 1 2019, In : Diagnostic Cytopathology.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Follicular Adenocarcinoma
Fine Needle Biopsy
Cell Biology
Epithelioid Cells

Five-Year Postoperative Outcomes of Bilateral Aphakia and Pseudophakia in Children up to 2 Years of Age: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Lambert, S. R., Bothun, E. D. & Plager, D., Mar 1 2019, In : American Journal of Ophthalmology. 199, p. 263-264 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

Randomized Controlled Trials

Fluoride exposure and pubertal development in children living in Mexico City

Liu, Y., Téllez-Rojo, M., Hu, H., Sánchez, B. N., Martinez Mier, E., Basu, N., Mercado-García, A., Solano-González, M. & Peterson, K. E., Mar 29 2019, In : Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source. 18, 1, 26.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Child Development
Specific Gravity
Ion-Selective Electrodes

Formulation of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant with TLR agonists poly(I:C) and CpG enhances the magnitude and avidity of the humoral immune response

Lu, F., Mosley, Y. Y. C., Carmichael, B., Brown, D. D. & HogenEsch, H., Jan 1 2019, In : Vaccine.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aluminum Hydroxide
polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid
aluminum hydroxide
Toll-Like Receptors
Humoral Immunity

Fruit and vegetable consumption, cigarette smoke, and leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number

Wu, S., Li, X., Meng, S., Fung, T., Chan, A. T., Liang, G., Giovannucci, E., De Vivo, I., Lee, J. H. & Nan, H., Feb 1 2019, In : The American journal of clinical nutrition. 109, 2, p. 424-432 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mitochondrial DNA
Tobacco Products
2 Citations (Scopus)

Functional and Anatomical Outcomes of Facial Nerve Injury with Application of Polyethylene Glycol in a Rat Model

Brown, B. L., Asante, T., Welch, H. R., Sandelski, M. M., Drejet, S. M., Shah, K., Runge, E. M., Shipchandler, T. Z., Jones, K. & Walker, C., Jan 1 2019, In : JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery. 21, 1, p. 61-68 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Facial Nerve Injuries
Motor Neurons
Facial Nerve
Cranial Nerve Injuries

Gains in health insurance coverage explain variation in Democratic vote share in the 2008-2016 presidential elections

Hollingsworth, A., Soni, A., Carroll, A., Cawley, J. & Simon, K., Apr 1 2019, In : PLoS ONE. 14, 4, e0214206.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Health insurance
health insurance
Insurance Coverage
Health Insurance
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

Generating civically-engaged undergraduate student scientists in general education classrooms

Lineweaver, T. T. & Bergeson-Dana, T., Jan 1 2019, In : Frontiers in Psychology. 10, APR, 664.

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate

Open Access
3 Citations (Scopus)

Genetic Ancestry Markers and Difference in A1c Between African American and White in the Diabetes Prevention Program

Hivert, M. F., Christophi, C. A., Jablonski, K. A., Edelstein, S. L., Kahn, S. E., Golden, S. H., Dagogo-Jack, S., Mather, K., Luchsinger, J. A., Caballero, A. E., Barrett-Connor, E., Knowler, W. C., Florez, J. C. & Herman, W. H., Feb 1 2019, In : The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 104, 2, p. 328-336 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Medical problems
Genetic Markers
African Americans

Genetic architecture of laterality defects revealed by whole exome sequencing

Li, A. H., Hanchard, N. A., Azamian, M., D’Alessandro, L. C. A., Coban-Akdemir, Z., Lopez, K. N., Hall, N. J., Dickerson, H., Nicosia, A., Fernbach, S., Boone, P. M., Gambin, T., Karaca, E., Gu, S., Yuan, B., Jhangiani, S. N., Doddapaneni, H. V., Hu, J., Dinh, H., Jayaseelan, J. & 11 othersMuzny, D., Lalani, S., Towbin, J., Penny, D., Fraser, C., Martin, J., Lupski, J. R., Gibbs, R. A., Boerwinkle, E., Ware, S. & Belmont, J. W., Apr 1 2019, In : European Journal of Human Genetics. 27, 4, p. 563-573 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kartagener Syndrome
Genetic Models

Genetic determinants of risk in pulmonary arterial hypertension: international genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis

UK NIHR BioResource Rare Diseases Consortium, UK PAH Cohort Study Consortium & US PAH Biobank Consortium, Mar 1 2019, In : The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 7, 3, p. 227-238 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Genome-Wide Association Study
Pulmonary Hypertension
Histocompatibility Testing

Genetic interaction analysis among oncogenesis-related genes revealed novel genes and networks in lung cancer development

Li, Y., Xiao, X., Bossé, Y., Gorlova, O., Gorlov, I., Han, Y., Byun, J., Leighl, N., Johansen, J. S., Barnett, M., Chen, C., Goodman, G., Cox, A., Taylor, F., Woll, P., Erich Wichmann, H., Manz, J., Muley, T., Risch, A., Rosenberger, A. & 60 othersHan, J., Siminovitch, K., Arnold, S. M., Haura, E. B., Bolca, C., Holcatova, I., Janout, V., Kontic, M., Lissowska, J., Mukeria, A., Ognjanovic, S., Orlowski, T. M., Scelo, G., Swiatkowska, B., Zaridze, D., Bakke, P., Skaug, V., Zienolddiny, S., Duell, E. J., Butler, L. M., Houlston, R., Artigas, M. S., Grankvist, K., Johansson, M., Shepherd, F. A., Marcus, M. W., Brunnström, H., Manjer, J., Melander, O., Muller, D. C., Overvad, K., Trichopoulou, A., Tumino, R., Liu, G., Bojesen, S. E., Wu, X., Le Marchand, L., Albanes, D., Bickeböller, H., Aldrich, M. C., Bush, W. S., Tardon, A., Rennert, G., Dawn Teare, M., Field, J. K., Kiemeney, L. A., Lazarus, P., Haugen, A., Lam, S., Schabath, M. B., Andrew, A. S., Bertazzi, P. A., Pesatori, A. C., Christiani, D. C., Caporaso, N., Johansson, M., McKay, J. D., Brennan, P., Hung, R. J. & Amos, C. I., Mar 1 2019, In : Oncotarget. 10, 19, p. 1760-1774 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gene Regulatory Networks
Lung Neoplasms

Genetics of Alcoholism

Edenberg, H., Gelernter, J. & Agrawal, A., Apr 1 2019, In : Current psychiatry reports. 21, 4, 26.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Alcohol Drinking

Genetic Variants Associated With Vincristine-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Two Populations of Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Li, L., Sajdyk, T., Smith, E. M. L., Chang, C. W., Li, C., Ho, R. H., Hutchinson, R., Wells, E., Skiles, J. L., Winick, N., Martin, P. L. & Renbarger, J., Jan 1 2019, (Accepted/In press) In : Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Peripheral Nervous System Diseases
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

Genetic variants in ELOVL2 and HSD17B12 predict melanoma-specific survival

Dai, W., Liu, H., Xu, X., Ge, J., Luo, S., Zhu, D., Amos, C. I., Fang, S., Lee, J. E., Li, X., Nan, H., Li, C. & Wei, Q., Jan 1 2019, In : International Journal of Cancer.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Skin Diseases
Genome-Wide Association Study

Genome-wide analyses as part of the international FTLD-TDP whole-genome sequencing consortium reveals novel disease risk factors and increases support for immune dysfunction in FTLD

Pottier, C., Ren, Y., Perkerson, R. B., Baker, M., Jenkins, G. D., van Blitterswijk, M., DeJesus-Hernandez, M., van Rooij, J. G. J., Murray, M. E., Christopher, E., McDonnell, S. K., Fogarty, Z., Batzler, A., Tian, S., Vicente, C. T., Matchett, B., Karydas, A. M., Hsiung, G. Y. R., Seelaar, H., Mol, M. O. & 85 othersFinger, E. C., Graff, C., Öijerstedt, L., Neumann, M., Heutink, P., Synofzik, M., Wilke, C., Prudlo, J., Rizzu, P., Simon-Sanchez, J., Edbauer, D., Roeber, S., Diehl-Schmid, J., Evers, B. M., King, A., Mesulam, M. M., Weintraub, S., Geula, C., Bieniek, K. F., Petrucelli, L., Ahern, G. L., Reiman, E. M., Woodruff, B. K., Caselli, R. J., Huey, E. D., Farlow, M., Grafman, J., Mead, S., Grinberg, L. T., Spina, S., Grossman, M., Irwin, D. J., Lee, E. B., Suh, E. R., Snowden, J., Mann, D., Ertekin-Taner, N., Uitti, R. J., Wszolek, Z. K., Josephs, K. A., Parisi, J. E., Knopman, D. S., Petersen, R. C., Hodges, J. R., Piguet, O., Geier, E. G., Yokoyama, J. S., Rissman, R. A., Rogaeva, E., Keith, J., Zinman, L., Tartaglia, M. C., Cairns, N. J., Cruchaga, C., Ghetti, B., Kofler, J., Lopez, O. L., Beach, T. G., Arzberger, T., Herms, J., Honig, L. S., Vonsattel, J. P., Halliday, G. M., Kwok, J. B., White, C. L., Gearing, M., Glass, J., Rollinson, S., Pickering-Brown, S., Rohrer, J. D., Trojanowski, J. Q., Van Deerlin, V., Bigio, E. H., Troakes, C., Al-Sarraj, S., Asmann, Y., Miller, B. L., Graff-Radford, N. R., Boeve, B. F., Seeley, W. W., Mackenzie, I. R. A., van Swieten, J. C., Dickson, D. W., Biernacka, J. M. & Rademakers, R., Jan 1 2019, In : Acta Neuropathologica.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration
Frontotemporal Dementia

Genome-wide association study meta-analysis of the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) in two population-based cohorts

Sanchez-Roige, S., Palmer, A. A., Fontanillas, P., Elson, S. L., Adams, M. J., Howard, D. M., Edenberg, H., Davies, G., Crist, R. C., Deary, I. J., McIntosh, A. M., Clarke, T. K., Elson, L., Fontanillas, P., Furlotte, N. A., Hinds, D. A., Huber, K. E., Kleinman, A., Litterman, N. K., McCreight, J. C. & 13 othersMcIntyre, M. H., Mountain, J. L., Noblin, E. S., Northover, C. A. M., Pitts, S. J., Sathirapongsasuti, J. F., Sazonova, O. V., Shelton, J. F., Shringarpure, S., Tian, C., Tung, J. Y., Vacic, V. & Wilson, C. H., Feb 1 2019, In : American Journal of Psychiatry. 176, 2, p. 107-118 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Genome-Wide Association Study
Alcohol Drinking
Hispanic Americans
Peer Group
Mental Health Services

Global gene expression of histologically normal primary skin cells from BCNS subjects reveals "single-hit" effects that are influenced by rapamycin

Phatak, A., Athar, M., Crowell, J. A., Leffel, D., Herbert, B-S., Bale, A. E. & Kopelovich, L., Feb 1 2019, In : Oncotarget. 10, 14, p. 1360-1387 28 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gene Expression
Open Access
Leucine Zippers
Glucocorticoid Receptors
Innate Immunity
1 Citation (Scopus)

Grading of renal cell carcinoma

Delahunt, B., Eble, J., Egevad, L. & Samaratunga, H., Jan 1 2019, In : Histopathology. 74, 1, p. 4-17 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Renal Cell Carcinoma
Male Genitalia
2 Citations (Scopus)

Hachimoji DNA and RNA: A genetic system with eight building blocks

Hoshika, S., Leal, N. A., Kim, M. J., Kim, M. S., Karalkar, N. B., Kim, H. J., Bates, A. M., Watkins, N. E., SantaLucia, H. A., Meyer, A. J., DasGupta, S., Piccirilli, J. A., Ellington, A. D., SantaLucia, J., Georgiadis, M. & Benner, S. A., Jan 1 2019, In : Science. 363, 6429, p. 884-887 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Molecular Structure

Hepatic Autophagy Deficiency Compromises Farnesoid X Receptor Functionality and Causes Cholestatic Injury

Khambu, B., Li, T., Yan, S., Yu, C., Chen, X., Goheen, M., Li, Y., Lin, J., Cummings, O., Lee, Y. A., Friedman, S., Dong, Z., Feng, G. S., Wu, S. & Yin, X-M., Jan 1 2019, In : Hepatology.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wounds and Injuries
Bile Acids and Salts

Hierarchical Structured Sparse Learning for Schizophrenia Identification

Wang, M., Hao, X., Huang, J., Wang, K., Shen, L., Xu, X., Zhang, D. & Liu, M., Jan 1 2019, In : Neuroinformatics.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Frequency bands

High-Deductible Health Plans and Prevention

Mazurenko, O., Buntin, M. J. B. & Menachemi, N., Apr 1 2019, In : Annual Review of Public Health. 40, p. 411-421 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Open Access
Deductibles and Coinsurance
Health Insurance
Health Expenditures
Health Care Costs

High glucose alters fetal rat islet transcriptome and induces progeny islet dysfunction

Casasnovas, J., Jo, Y., Rao, X., Xuei, X., Brown, M. E. & Kua, K. L., Feb 1 2019, In : Journal of Endocrinology. 240, 2, p. 309-323 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Islets of Langerhans

High in-hospital blood pressure variability and severe disability or death in primary intracerebral hemorrhage patients

Meeks, J. R., Bambhroliya, A. B., Meyer, E. G., Slaughter, K. B., Fraher, C. J., Sharrief, A. Z., Bowry, R., Ahmed, W. O., Tyson, J. E., Miller, C. C., Warach, S., Khan, B., McCullough, L. D., Savitz, S. I. & Vahidy, F. S., Jan 1 2019, (Accepted/In press) In : International Journal of Stroke.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Intracranial Hemorrhages
Cerebral Hemorrhage
Blood Pressure

High Rates of Readmission in Necrotizing Pancreatitis: Natural History or Opportunity for Improvement?

Maatman, T. K., Mahajan, S., Roch, A. M., Lewellen, K. A., Heimberger, M. A., Colgate, C. L., Ceppa, E. P., House, M., Nakeeb, A., Schmidt, C. & Zyromski, N., Jan 1 2019, In : Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Natural History
Patient Readmission
Failure to Thrive
2 Citations (Scopus)

HIV-Nef protein persists in the lungs of aviremic patients with HIV and induces endothelial cell death

Chelvanambi, S., Bogatcheva, N., Bednorz, M., Agarwal, S., Maier, B., Alves, N., Li, W., Syed, F., Saber, M. M., Dahl, N., Lu, H., Day, R. B., Smith, P., Jolicoeur, P., Yu, A., Dhillon, N. K., Weissmann, N., Twigg, H. & Clauss, M., Mar 1 2019, In : American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. 60, 3, p. 357-366 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Human Immunodeficiency Virus nef Gene Products
Endothelial cells
Cell death
Cell Death
Endothelial Cells

Home and Community-Based Service Organizations’ Capacity for and Experiences With Quality Improvement Initiatives

Noureldin, M., Abrahamson, K. & Arling, G., Feb 1 2019, In : Home Health Care Management and Practice. 31, 1, p. 23-29 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Social Welfare
Quality Improvement

How Intrapersonal Diversity Enhances Creativity: Leonardo da Vinci

Lion, A. & Gunderman, R., Jan 1 2019, In : Academic Radiology.

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate