Cerebral ischemia leads to multifaceted injury to the brain. A polytherapeutic drug that can be administered immediately after reperfusion may increase protection to the brain by simultaneously targeting multiple deleterious cascades. This study evaluated efficacy of the combination of three clinically approved drugs: lamotrigine, minocycline, and lovastatin, using two mouse models: global and focal cerebral ischemia induced by transient occlusion of the common carotid arteries or the middle cerebral artery, respectively. In vitro, the combination drug, but not single drug, protected neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death. The combination drug simultaneously targeted cell apoptosis and DNA damage induced by ischemia. Besides acting on neurons, the combination drug suppressed inflammatory processes in microglia and brain endothelial cells induced by ischemia. In a transient global ischemia model, the combination drug, but not single drug, suppressed microglial activation and inflammatory cytokine production, and reduced neuronal damage. In a transient focal ischemia model, the combination drug, but not single drug, attenuated brain infarction, suppressed infiltration of peripheral neutrophils, and reduced neurological deficits following ischemic stroke. In summary, the combination drug confers a broad-spectrum protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and could be a promising approach for early neuroprotection after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or ischemic stroke.
- Brain infarction
- Cerebral ischemia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine