A comparison of calcium to zoledronic acid for improvement of cortical bone in an animal model of CKD

Sharon Moe, Xuening (Neal) Chen, Christopher L. Newman, Vincent H. Gattone, Jason Organ, Xianming Chen, Matthew Allen

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Abstract

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased risk of fractures, yet the optimal treatment is unknown. In secondary analyses of large randomized trials, bisphosphonates have been shown to improve bone mineral density and reduce fractures. However, bisphosphonates are currently not recommended in patients with advanced kidney disease due to concern about oversuppressing bone remodeling, which may increase the risk of developing arterial calcification. In the present study we used a naturally occurring rat model of CKD with secondary hyperparathyroidism, the Cy/+ rat, and compared the efficacy of treatment with zoledronic acid, calcium given in water to simulate a phosphate binder, and the combination of calcium and zoledronic acid. Animals were treated beginning at 25 weeks of age (approximately 30% of normal renal function) and followed for 10 weeks. The results demonstrate that both zoledronic acid and calcium improved bone volume by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and both equally suppressed the mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and mineralizing surface of trabecular bone. In contrast, only calcium treatment with or without zoledronic acid improved cortical porosity and cortical biomechanical properties (ultimate load and stiffness) and lowered parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, only calcium treatment led to the adverse effects of increased arterial calcification and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). These results suggest zoledronic acid may improve trabecular bone volume in CKD in the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism, but does not benefit extraskeletal calcification or cortical biomechanical properties. Calcium effectively reduces PTH and benefits both cortical and trabecular bone yet increases the degree of extra skeletal calcification.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)902-910
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Volume29
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

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zoledronic acid
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Animal Models
Calcium
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
Diphosphonates
Parathyroid Hormone
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
Bone Remodeling
Porosity
Kidney Diseases
Osteogenesis
Bone Density
Minerals
Cortical Bone
Therapeutics
Phosphates

Keywords

  • BIOMECHANICS
  • BONE
  • CALCIUM
  • CKD
  • FGF23
  • PARATHYROID HORMONE
  • VASCULAR CALCIFICATION
  • ZOLEDRONIC ACID

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "A comparison of calcium to zoledronic acid for improvement of cortical bone in an animal model of CKD",
abstract = "Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased risk of fractures, yet the optimal treatment is unknown. In secondary analyses of large randomized trials, bisphosphonates have been shown to improve bone mineral density and reduce fractures. However, bisphosphonates are currently not recommended in patients with advanced kidney disease due to concern about oversuppressing bone remodeling, which may increase the risk of developing arterial calcification. In the present study we used a naturally occurring rat model of CKD with secondary hyperparathyroidism, the Cy/+ rat, and compared the efficacy of treatment with zoledronic acid, calcium given in water to simulate a phosphate binder, and the combination of calcium and zoledronic acid. Animals were treated beginning at 25 weeks of age (approximately 30{\%} of normal renal function) and followed for 10 weeks. The results demonstrate that both zoledronic acid and calcium improved bone volume by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and both equally suppressed the mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and mineralizing surface of trabecular bone. In contrast, only calcium treatment with or without zoledronic acid improved cortical porosity and cortical biomechanical properties (ultimate load and stiffness) and lowered parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, only calcium treatment led to the adverse effects of increased arterial calcification and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). These results suggest zoledronic acid may improve trabecular bone volume in CKD in the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism, but does not benefit extraskeletal calcification or cortical biomechanical properties. Calcium effectively reduces PTH and benefits both cortical and trabecular bone yet increases the degree of extra skeletal calcification.",
keywords = "BIOMECHANICS, BONE, CALCIUM, CKD, FGF23, PARATHYROID HORMONE, VASCULAR CALCIFICATION, ZOLEDRONIC ACID",
author = "Sharon Moe and Chen, {Xuening (Neal)} and Newman, {Christopher L.} and Gattone, {Vincent H.} and Jason Organ and Xianming Chen and Matthew Allen",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1002/jbmr.2089",
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T1 - A comparison of calcium to zoledronic acid for improvement of cortical bone in an animal model of CKD

AU - Moe, Sharon

AU - Chen, Xuening (Neal)

AU - Newman, Christopher L.

AU - Gattone, Vincent H.

AU - Organ, Jason

AU - Chen, Xianming

AU - Allen, Matthew

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased risk of fractures, yet the optimal treatment is unknown. In secondary analyses of large randomized trials, bisphosphonates have been shown to improve bone mineral density and reduce fractures. However, bisphosphonates are currently not recommended in patients with advanced kidney disease due to concern about oversuppressing bone remodeling, which may increase the risk of developing arterial calcification. In the present study we used a naturally occurring rat model of CKD with secondary hyperparathyroidism, the Cy/+ rat, and compared the efficacy of treatment with zoledronic acid, calcium given in water to simulate a phosphate binder, and the combination of calcium and zoledronic acid. Animals were treated beginning at 25 weeks of age (approximately 30% of normal renal function) and followed for 10 weeks. The results demonstrate that both zoledronic acid and calcium improved bone volume by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and both equally suppressed the mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and mineralizing surface of trabecular bone. In contrast, only calcium treatment with or without zoledronic acid improved cortical porosity and cortical biomechanical properties (ultimate load and stiffness) and lowered parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, only calcium treatment led to the adverse effects of increased arterial calcification and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). These results suggest zoledronic acid may improve trabecular bone volume in CKD in the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism, but does not benefit extraskeletal calcification or cortical biomechanical properties. Calcium effectively reduces PTH and benefits both cortical and trabecular bone yet increases the degree of extra skeletal calcification.

AB - Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased risk of fractures, yet the optimal treatment is unknown. In secondary analyses of large randomized trials, bisphosphonates have been shown to improve bone mineral density and reduce fractures. However, bisphosphonates are currently not recommended in patients with advanced kidney disease due to concern about oversuppressing bone remodeling, which may increase the risk of developing arterial calcification. In the present study we used a naturally occurring rat model of CKD with secondary hyperparathyroidism, the Cy/+ rat, and compared the efficacy of treatment with zoledronic acid, calcium given in water to simulate a phosphate binder, and the combination of calcium and zoledronic acid. Animals were treated beginning at 25 weeks of age (approximately 30% of normal renal function) and followed for 10 weeks. The results demonstrate that both zoledronic acid and calcium improved bone volume by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and both equally suppressed the mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and mineralizing surface of trabecular bone. In contrast, only calcium treatment with or without zoledronic acid improved cortical porosity and cortical biomechanical properties (ultimate load and stiffness) and lowered parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, only calcium treatment led to the adverse effects of increased arterial calcification and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). These results suggest zoledronic acid may improve trabecular bone volume in CKD in the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism, but does not benefit extraskeletal calcification or cortical biomechanical properties. Calcium effectively reduces PTH and benefits both cortical and trabecular bone yet increases the degree of extra skeletal calcification.

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