A direct repeat (DR-1) element in the first exon modulates transcription of the preproenkephalin A gene

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11 Scopus citations

Abstract

The preproenkephalin A gene is regulated by upstream cis-acting elements which respond to various signals, such as cAMP, calcium, and phorbol esters. An additional regulatory element was detected downstream of the transcription start site of the human preproenkephalin A gene in transfection experiments. The element was localized by DNAse I footprinting and methylation interference assays to a direct repeat (DR-1) element in the first (untranslated) exon. Deletion or mutation of this site reduced transcriptional activity of promoter-reporter constructs by over 50%. Antibodies against COUP-TFβ/ARP-1 and RXR transcription factors altered the pattern seen on electrophoretic mobility shift assays using double-stranded oligonucleotide containing the exon 1 protein binding site. This suggests that the factors that bind this site and modulate transcription of the PPE gene include members of the COUP-TF and retinoid X receptor families.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)50-58
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular Brain Research
Volume45
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 1997

Keywords

  • ARP-1
  • COUP-TF
  • DNA binding protein
  • Enkephalin
  • Neuroblastoma cell
  • Retinoid X receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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