A mammalian homologue of GCN2 protein kinase important for translational control by phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α

Ruchira Sood, Amy C. Porter, De Anne Olsen, Douglas R. Cavener, Ronald C. Wek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

209 Scopus citations

Abstract

A family of protein kinases regulates translation in response to different cellular stresses by phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2α). In yeast, an eIF-2α kinase, GCN2, functions in translational control in response to amino acid starvation. It is thought that uncharged tRNA that accumulates during amino acid limitation binds to sequences in GCN2 homologous to histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS) enzymes, leading to enhanced kinase catalytic activity. Given that starvation for amino acids also stimulates phosphorylation of eIF-2α in mammalian cells, we searched for and identified a GCN2 homologue in mice. We cloned three different cDNAs encoding mouse GCN2 isoforms, derived from a single gene, that vary in their amino-terminal sequences. Like their yeast counterpart, the mouse GCN2 isoforms contain HisRS-related sequences juxtaposed to the kinase catalytic domain. While GCN2 mRNA was found in all mouse tissues examined, the isoforms appear to be differentially expressed. Mouse GCN2 expressed in yeast was found to inhibit growth by hyperphosphorylation of eIF-2α, requiring both the kinase catalytic domain and the HisRS-related sequences. Additionally, lysates prepared from yeast expressing mGCN2 were found to phosphorylate recombinant eIF-2α substrate. Mouse GCN2 activity in both the in vivo and in vitro assays required the presence of serine-51, the known regulatory phosphorylation site in eIF-2α. Together, our studies identify a new mammalian eIF-2α kinase, GCN2, that can mediate translational control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)787-801
Number of pages15
JournalGenetics
Volume154
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics

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