Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related death. It is a highly vascular tumour with multiple angiogenic factors, most importantly vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), involved in HCC progression. Tivozanib is an oral inhibitor of VEGFR-1/2/3 with promising activity against HCC in vivo. Methods: We conducted a phase 1b/2 study of tivozanib in patients with advanced HCC. The safety, dosing, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and preliminary antineoplastic efficacy of tivozanib were evaluated. Results: Twenty-seven patients received at least one dose of tivozanib. Using a 3+3 design, the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of tivozanib was determined to be 1 mg per os once daily, 21 days on–7 days off. The median progression-free and overall survival were 24 weeks and 9 months, respectively, for patients treated at RP2D. The overall response rate was 21%. Treatment was well tolerated. A significant decrease in soluble plasma VEGFR-2 was noted, assuring adequate target engagement. Conclusions: Although this study did not proceed to stage 2, there was an early efficacy signal with a very favourable toxicity profile. A phase 1/2 trial of tivozanib in combination with durvalumab is currently underway. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01835223, registered on 15 April 2013.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research