It has long been established that β-Secretase (BACE) plays a critical role in the formation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s Disease patients, but it is only recently that the importance of β-secretases in retinal pathophysiology has been recognized. BACE expression is elevated in response to stress, and downregulation results in lysosomal abnormalities and mitochondrial changes. Inhibition of BACE can lead to reduced retinal function, retinal thinning, lipofuscin accumulation and vascular dysfunction in mice. Furthermore, BACE inhibition accelerates choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mice. We propose that BACE plays an important role in retinal homeostasis and that BACE upregulation in response to stress is a protective measure.