A phase I trial of high-dose clofarabine, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with primary refractory and relapsed and refractory Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Shivani Srivastava, David Jones, Lisa L. Wood, Jennifer E. Schwartz, Robert P. Nelson, Rafat Abonour, Angie Secrest, Elizabeth Cox, Jay Baute, Cheryl Sullivan, Kathleen Kane, Michael J. Robertson, Sherif S. Farag

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6 Scopus citations


Clofarabine has significant single-agent activity in patients with indolent and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and synergizes with DNA-damaging drugs. Treatment, however, may be associated with severe and prolonged myelosuppression. We conducted a phase I trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of clofarabine in combination with high-dose etoposide and cyclophosphamide followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients received clofarabine at 30-70 mg/m2/day on days -6 to -2 in successive cohorts, in combination with etoposide 60 mg/kg (day -8), and cyclophosphamide 100 mg/kg (day -6), followed by filgrastim-mobilized PBSC on day 0. Sixteen patients of median age 57 (range: 32-67) years with diffuse large B cell (n = 8), follicular (n = 5), or mantle cell (n = 3) lymphoma that was either primary refractory (n = 2) or relapsed and refractory (n = 14) were treated at 5 clofarabine dose levels: 30 (n = 3), 40 (n = 3), 50 (n = 3), 60 (n = 3), and 70 mg/m2/day (n = 4) in combination with etoposide and cyclophosphamide. All patients had grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Grade 3-4 nonhematologic toxicity was evenly distributed across all 5 dose levels, and included diarrhea (n = 3), mucositis (n = 1), nausea (n = 1), reversible elevation of alanine aminotranferease/aspartate aminotransferase (AST/ALT) (n = 1) or bilirubin (n = 1), and hemorrhagic cystitis (n = 1); all resolved by day +30 following transplantation. The MTD was not reached. No treatment-related deaths occurred. At day +30, 13 patients achieved a complete remission (CR) or unconfirmed CR (CRU), and 2 patients achieved a partial response, for an overall response rate of 94%. After a median follow-up of 691 days, the 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 63% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 43%-91%) and 68% (95% CI: 49%-96%), respectively. We recommend clofarabine 70 mg/m2/day × 5 days as a phase II dose in combination with high-dose etoposide and cyclophosphamide for further testing as a preparative regimen in NHL patients undergoing autologous PBSC transplantation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)987-994
Number of pages8
JournalBiology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2011



  • Autologous stem cell transplantation
  • Clofarabine
  • Non-Hodgkins lymphoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transplantation
  • Hematology

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