A population pharmacokinetic model for R- and S-citalopram and desmethylcitalopram in Alzheimer’s disease patients with agitation

Ayman Akil, Robert R. Bies, Bruce G. Pollock, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, D. P. Devanand, Jacobo E. Mintzer, Anton P. Porsteinsson, Lon S. Schneider, Daniel Weintraub, Jerome Yesavage, David M. Shade, Constantine G. Lyketsos

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Abstract

The citalopram for Alzheimer’s disease trial evaluated citalopram for the management for agitation in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Sparse data was available from this elderly patient population. A nonlinear mixed effects population pharmacokinetic modeling approach was used to describe the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-citalopram and their primary metabolite (desmethylcitalopram). A structural model with 4 compartments (one compartment/compound) with linear oral absorption and elimination described the data adequately. Overall, the model showed that clearance of the R-enantiomer was slower than the clearance of the S-enantiomer. Without accounting for any patient-specific covariates, the population estimate of the metabolic clearance of citalopram was 8.6 (R-citalopram) and 14 L/h (S-citalopram). The population estimate of the clearance of desmethylcitalopram was 23.8 (R-Dcit) and 38.5 L/h (S-Dcit). Several patient-specific covariates were found to have a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of R,S-citalopram and desmethylcitalopram. A significant difference in the metabolic clearance of R-citalopram between males and females (13 vs 9.05 L/h) was identified in this analysis. Both R- and S-citalopram metabolic clearance decreased with age. Additionally, consistent with literature reports S-citalopram metabolic clearance increased with increasing body weight and was significantly influenced by CYPC19 genotype, with a difference of 5.8 L/h between extensive/rapid and intermediate/poor metabolizers. R,S-desmethylcitalopram clearance increased with increasing body weight. This model may allow for the opportunity to delineate the effect of R- and S-citalopram on pharmacodynamics outcomes related to the management of agitation in Alzheimer’s disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)99-109
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Volume43
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016

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Keywords

  • Agitation
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Citalopram
  • Pharmacokinetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Akil, A., Bies, R. R., Pollock, B. G., Avramopoulos, D., Devanand, D. P., Mintzer, J. E., Porsteinsson, A. P., Schneider, L. S., Weintraub, D., Yesavage, J., Shade, D. M., & Lyketsos, C. G. (2016). A population pharmacokinetic model for R- and S-citalopram and desmethylcitalopram in Alzheimer’s disease patients with agitation. Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, 43(1), 99-109. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10928-015-9457-6