A porcine model of bladder outlet obstruction incorporating radio-telemetered cystometry

Matthew B. Shaw, Claude D. Herndon, Mark P. Cain, Richard C. Rink, Martin Kaefer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: To present a novel porcine model of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) with a standardized bladder outlet resistance and real-time ambulatory radio-telemetered cystometry, as BOO is a common condition with many causes in both adults and children, with significant morbidity and occasional mortality, but attempts to model this condition in many animal models have the fundamental problem of standardising the degree of outlet resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BOO was created in nine castrated male pigs by dividing the mid-urethra; outflow was allowed through an implanted bladder drainage catheter containing a resistance valve, allowing urine to flow across the valve only when a set pressure differential was generated across the valve. An implantable radio-telemetered pressure sensor monitored the pressure within the bladder and abdominal cavity, and relayed this information to a remote computer. Four control pigs had an occluded bladder drainage catheter and pressure sensor placed, but were allowed to void normally through the native urethra. Intra-vesical pressure was monitored by telemetry, while the resistance valve was increased weekly, beginning with 2 cmH2O and ultimately reaching 10 cmH2O. The pigs were assessed using conventional cystometry under anaesthesia before death, and samples conserved in formalin for haematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS: The pigs had radio-telemetered cystometry for a median of 26 days. All telemetry implants functioned well for the duration of the experiment, but one pig developed a urethral fistula and was excluded from the study. With BOO the bladder mass index (bladder mass/body mass × 10 000) increased from 9.7 to 20 (P = 0.004), with a significant degree of hypertrophy of the detrusor smooth muscle bundles. Obstructed bladders were significantly less compliant than control bladders (8.3 vs 22.1 mL/cmH2O, P = 0.03). Telemetric cystometry showed that there was no statistically significance difference in mean bladder pressure between obstructed and control pigs (4.8 vs 6.7 cmH2O, P = 0.7), but that each void was longer in the pigs with BOO. CONCLUSION: This new model of BOO provides a method of reliably and precisely defining the bladder outlet resistance; it induces the changes classically seen with BOO, including increased bladder mass, increased smooth muscle bundle size and decreased compliance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)170-174
Number of pages5
JournalBJU International
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2007


  • Bladder outlet obstruction
  • Pig model
  • Telemetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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