A practical and evidence-based approach to common symptoms: A narrative review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Physical symptoms account for more than half of all outpatient visits, yet the predominant disease-focused model of care is inadequate for many of these symptom-prompted encounters. Moreover, the amount of clinician training dedicated to understanding, evaluating, and managing common symptoms is disproportionally small relative to their prevalence, impairment, and health care costs. This narrative review regarding physical symptoms addresses 4 common epidemiologic questions: cause, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Important findings include the following: First, at least one third of common symptoms do not have a clear-cut, disease-based explanation (5 studies in primary care, 1 in specialty clinics, and 2 in the general population). Second, the history and physical examination alone contribute 73% to 94% of the diagnostic information, with costly testing and procedures contributing much less (5 studies of multiple types of symptoms and 4 of specific symptoms). Third, physical and psychological symptoms commonly co-occur, making a dualistic approach impractical. Fourth, because most patients have multiple symptoms rather than a single symptom, focusing on 1 symptom and ignoring the others is unwise. Fifth, symptoms improve in weeks to several months in most patients but become chronic or recur in 20% to 25%. Sixth, serious causes that are not apparent after initial evaluation seldom emerge during long-term follow-up. Seventh, certain pharmacologic and behavioral treatments are effective across multiple types of symptoms. Eighth, measuring treatment response with valid scales can be helpful. Finally, communication has therapeutic value, including providing an explanation and probable prognosis without "normalizing" the symptom.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)579-586
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of internal medicine
Volume161
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 21 2014

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Therapeutics
Health Care Costs
Physical Examination
Primary Health Care
Outpatients
History
Communication
Psychology
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

A practical and evidence-based approach to common symptoms : A narrative review. / Kroenke, Kurt.

In: Annals of internal medicine, Vol. 161, No. 8, 21.10.2014, p. 579-586.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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