A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of buffered versus plain tetracaine in reducing the pain of topical ophthalmic anesthesia

Christopher Weaver, Daniel Rusyniak, Edward J. Brizendine, Steve Abel, Geoffrey G. Somerville, John D. Howard, Timothy Root

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Study objective: We determine whether buffering ocular tetracaine hydrochloride reduces the pain of instillation. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, 2-treatment, 2-period crossover, single center study of healthy volunteers 18 years of age or older. Participants were randomized to receive either 2 drops of buffered or plain tetracaine in a randomly assigned eye. After a mean wash out period of 24 days (range 7 to 54 days), participants returned to have 2 drops of the other medication instilled in the same eye. The participants recorded the pain of instillation on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) immediately and 5 minutes after instillation. Adverse events were also recorded at these intervals. The primary outcome measure was the intensity of pain as measured on a VAS immediately after instillation. Results: Sixty persons were enrolled in the study, with 100% follow up. Immediately after instillation, the adjusted mean VAS score for buffered tetracaine was 29.1 mm, and the adjusted mean VAS score for plain tetracaine was 16.0 mm. The estimated difference was 13.1 mm (95% confidence interval 6.9 to 19.3 mm). Conclusion: Buffering of tetracaine hydrochloride significantly increases the pain of its instillation in healthy volunteers, suggesting that pain with instillation of ocular anesthetics is not dependent on low pH.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)827-831
Number of pages5
JournalAnnals of Emergency Medicine
Volume41
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2003

Fingerprint

Tetracaine
Visual Analog Scale
Anesthesia
Pain
Healthy Volunteers
Anesthetics
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Confidence Intervals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine

Cite this

A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of buffered versus plain tetracaine in reducing the pain of topical ophthalmic anesthesia. / Weaver, Christopher; Rusyniak, Daniel; Brizendine, Edward J.; Abel, Steve; Somerville, Geoffrey G.; Howard, John D.; Root, Timothy.

In: Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 6, 01.06.2003, p. 827-831.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Weaver, Christopher ; Rusyniak, Daniel ; Brizendine, Edward J. ; Abel, Steve ; Somerville, Geoffrey G. ; Howard, John D. ; Root, Timothy. / A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of buffered versus plain tetracaine in reducing the pain of topical ophthalmic anesthesia. In: Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2003 ; Vol. 41, No. 6. pp. 827-831.
@article{0b4c290fa6824907a3062f84fbc9e5d1,
title = "A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of buffered versus plain tetracaine in reducing the pain of topical ophthalmic anesthesia",
abstract = "Study objective: We determine whether buffering ocular tetracaine hydrochloride reduces the pain of instillation. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, 2-treatment, 2-period crossover, single center study of healthy volunteers 18 years of age or older. Participants were randomized to receive either 2 drops of buffered or plain tetracaine in a randomly assigned eye. After a mean wash out period of 24 days (range 7 to 54 days), participants returned to have 2 drops of the other medication instilled in the same eye. The participants recorded the pain of instillation on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) immediately and 5 minutes after instillation. Adverse events were also recorded at these intervals. The primary outcome measure was the intensity of pain as measured on a VAS immediately after instillation. Results: Sixty persons were enrolled in the study, with 100{\%} follow up. Immediately after instillation, the adjusted mean VAS score for buffered tetracaine was 29.1 mm, and the adjusted mean VAS score for plain tetracaine was 16.0 mm. The estimated difference was 13.1 mm (95{\%} confidence interval 6.9 to 19.3 mm). Conclusion: Buffering of tetracaine hydrochloride significantly increases the pain of its instillation in healthy volunteers, suggesting that pain with instillation of ocular anesthetics is not dependent on low pH.",
author = "Christopher Weaver and Daniel Rusyniak and Brizendine, {Edward J.} and Steve Abel and Somerville, {Geoffrey G.} and Howard, {John D.} and Timothy Root",
year = "2003",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1067/mem.2003.192",
language = "English",
volume = "41",
pages = "827--831",
journal = "Annals of Emergency Medicine",
issn = "0196-0644",
publisher = "Mosby Inc.",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of buffered versus plain tetracaine in reducing the pain of topical ophthalmic anesthesia

AU - Weaver, Christopher

AU - Rusyniak, Daniel

AU - Brizendine, Edward J.

AU - Abel, Steve

AU - Somerville, Geoffrey G.

AU - Howard, John D.

AU - Root, Timothy

PY - 2003/6/1

Y1 - 2003/6/1

N2 - Study objective: We determine whether buffering ocular tetracaine hydrochloride reduces the pain of instillation. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, 2-treatment, 2-period crossover, single center study of healthy volunteers 18 years of age or older. Participants were randomized to receive either 2 drops of buffered or plain tetracaine in a randomly assigned eye. After a mean wash out period of 24 days (range 7 to 54 days), participants returned to have 2 drops of the other medication instilled in the same eye. The participants recorded the pain of instillation on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) immediately and 5 minutes after instillation. Adverse events were also recorded at these intervals. The primary outcome measure was the intensity of pain as measured on a VAS immediately after instillation. Results: Sixty persons were enrolled in the study, with 100% follow up. Immediately after instillation, the adjusted mean VAS score for buffered tetracaine was 29.1 mm, and the adjusted mean VAS score for plain tetracaine was 16.0 mm. The estimated difference was 13.1 mm (95% confidence interval 6.9 to 19.3 mm). Conclusion: Buffering of tetracaine hydrochloride significantly increases the pain of its instillation in healthy volunteers, suggesting that pain with instillation of ocular anesthetics is not dependent on low pH.

AB - Study objective: We determine whether buffering ocular tetracaine hydrochloride reduces the pain of instillation. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, 2-treatment, 2-period crossover, single center study of healthy volunteers 18 years of age or older. Participants were randomized to receive either 2 drops of buffered or plain tetracaine in a randomly assigned eye. After a mean wash out period of 24 days (range 7 to 54 days), participants returned to have 2 drops of the other medication instilled in the same eye. The participants recorded the pain of instillation on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) immediately and 5 minutes after instillation. Adverse events were also recorded at these intervals. The primary outcome measure was the intensity of pain as measured on a VAS immediately after instillation. Results: Sixty persons were enrolled in the study, with 100% follow up. Immediately after instillation, the adjusted mean VAS score for buffered tetracaine was 29.1 mm, and the adjusted mean VAS score for plain tetracaine was 16.0 mm. The estimated difference was 13.1 mm (95% confidence interval 6.9 to 19.3 mm). Conclusion: Buffering of tetracaine hydrochloride significantly increases the pain of its instillation in healthy volunteers, suggesting that pain with instillation of ocular anesthetics is not dependent on low pH.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0038514188&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0038514188&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1067/mem.2003.192

DO - 10.1067/mem.2003.192

M3 - Article

VL - 41

SP - 827

EP - 831

JO - Annals of Emergency Medicine

JF - Annals of Emergency Medicine

SN - 0196-0644

IS - 6

ER -