A prospective study of red meat consumption and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly women: The women's health study

Yiqing Song, Joann E. Manson, Julie E. Buring, Simin Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

248 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE - The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the relation between red meat intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Over an average of 8.8 years, we evaluated 37,309 participants in the Women's Health Study aged ≥45 years who were free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes and completed validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires in 1993. RESULTS - During 326,876 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,558 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for age, BMI, total energy intake, exercise, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, and family history of diabetes, we found positive associations between intakes of red meat and processed meat and risk of type 2 diabetes. Comparing women in the highest quintile with those in the lowest quintile, the multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.28 for red meat (95% CI 1.07-1.53, P < 0.001 for trend) and 1.23 for processed meat intake (1.05-1.45, P = 0.001 for trend). Furthermore, the significantly increased diabetes risk appeared to be most pronounced for frequent consumption of total processed meat (RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.17-1.75 for ≥5/week vs. <1/month, P < 0.001 for trend) and two major subtypes, which were bacon (1.21, 1.06-1.39 for ≥2/week vs. <1/week, P = 0.004 for trend) and hot dogs (1.28, 1.09-1.50 for ≥2/week vs. <1/week, P = 0.003 for trend). These results remained significant after further adjustment for intakes of dietary fiber, magnesium, glycemic load, and total fat. Intakes of total cholesterol, animal protein, and heme iron were also significantly associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - Our data indicate that higher consumption of total red meat, especially various processed meats, may increase risk of developing type 2 diabetes in women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2108-2115
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume27
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Women's Health
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Prospective Studies
Meat
Dietary Fiber
Red Meat
Energy Intake
Heme
Magnesium
Research Design
Cardiovascular Diseases
Iron
Smoking
Fats
Cholesterol
Alcohols
Dogs
Exercise
Food
Incidence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

A prospective study of red meat consumption and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly women : The women's health study. / Song, Yiqing; Manson, Joann E.; Buring, Julie E.; Liu, Simin.

In: Diabetes Care, Vol. 27, No. 9, 01.09.2004, p. 2108-2115.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Song, Yiqing ; Manson, Joann E. ; Buring, Julie E. ; Liu, Simin. / A prospective study of red meat consumption and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly women : The women's health study. In: Diabetes Care. 2004 ; Vol. 27, No. 9. pp. 2108-2115.
@article{eafaf65ed8ce457ba683bbabd6aabf84,
title = "A prospective study of red meat consumption and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly women: The women's health study",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE - The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the relation between red meat intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Over an average of 8.8 years, we evaluated 37,309 participants in the Women's Health Study aged ≥45 years who were free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes and completed validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires in 1993. RESULTS - During 326,876 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,558 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for age, BMI, total energy intake, exercise, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, and family history of diabetes, we found positive associations between intakes of red meat and processed meat and risk of type 2 diabetes. Comparing women in the highest quintile with those in the lowest quintile, the multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.28 for red meat (95{\%} CI 1.07-1.53, P < 0.001 for trend) and 1.23 for processed meat intake (1.05-1.45, P = 0.001 for trend). Furthermore, the significantly increased diabetes risk appeared to be most pronounced for frequent consumption of total processed meat (RR 1.43, 95{\%} CI 1.17-1.75 for ≥5/week vs. <1/month, P < 0.001 for trend) and two major subtypes, which were bacon (1.21, 1.06-1.39 for ≥2/week vs. <1/week, P = 0.004 for trend) and hot dogs (1.28, 1.09-1.50 for ≥2/week vs. <1/week, P = 0.003 for trend). These results remained significant after further adjustment for intakes of dietary fiber, magnesium, glycemic load, and total fat. Intakes of total cholesterol, animal protein, and heme iron were also significantly associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - Our data indicate that higher consumption of total red meat, especially various processed meats, may increase risk of developing type 2 diabetes in women.",
author = "Yiqing Song and Manson, {Joann E.} and Buring, {Julie E.} and Simin Liu",
year = "2004",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.2337/diacare.27.9.2108",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "27",
pages = "2108--2115",
journal = "Diabetes Care",
issn = "1935-5548",
publisher = "American Diabetes Association Inc.",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A prospective study of red meat consumption and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly women

T2 - The women's health study

AU - Song, Yiqing

AU - Manson, Joann E.

AU - Buring, Julie E.

AU - Liu, Simin

PY - 2004/9/1

Y1 - 2004/9/1

N2 - OBJECTIVE - The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the relation between red meat intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Over an average of 8.8 years, we evaluated 37,309 participants in the Women's Health Study aged ≥45 years who were free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes and completed validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires in 1993. RESULTS - During 326,876 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,558 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for age, BMI, total energy intake, exercise, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, and family history of diabetes, we found positive associations between intakes of red meat and processed meat and risk of type 2 diabetes. Comparing women in the highest quintile with those in the lowest quintile, the multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.28 for red meat (95% CI 1.07-1.53, P < 0.001 for trend) and 1.23 for processed meat intake (1.05-1.45, P = 0.001 for trend). Furthermore, the significantly increased diabetes risk appeared to be most pronounced for frequent consumption of total processed meat (RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.17-1.75 for ≥5/week vs. <1/month, P < 0.001 for trend) and two major subtypes, which were bacon (1.21, 1.06-1.39 for ≥2/week vs. <1/week, P = 0.004 for trend) and hot dogs (1.28, 1.09-1.50 for ≥2/week vs. <1/week, P = 0.003 for trend). These results remained significant after further adjustment for intakes of dietary fiber, magnesium, glycemic load, and total fat. Intakes of total cholesterol, animal protein, and heme iron were also significantly associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - Our data indicate that higher consumption of total red meat, especially various processed meats, may increase risk of developing type 2 diabetes in women.

AB - OBJECTIVE - The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the relation between red meat intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Over an average of 8.8 years, we evaluated 37,309 participants in the Women's Health Study aged ≥45 years who were free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes and completed validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires in 1993. RESULTS - During 326,876 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,558 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for age, BMI, total energy intake, exercise, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, and family history of diabetes, we found positive associations between intakes of red meat and processed meat and risk of type 2 diabetes. Comparing women in the highest quintile with those in the lowest quintile, the multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.28 for red meat (95% CI 1.07-1.53, P < 0.001 for trend) and 1.23 for processed meat intake (1.05-1.45, P = 0.001 for trend). Furthermore, the significantly increased diabetes risk appeared to be most pronounced for frequent consumption of total processed meat (RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.17-1.75 for ≥5/week vs. <1/month, P < 0.001 for trend) and two major subtypes, which were bacon (1.21, 1.06-1.39 for ≥2/week vs. <1/week, P = 0.004 for trend) and hot dogs (1.28, 1.09-1.50 for ≥2/week vs. <1/week, P = 0.003 for trend). These results remained significant after further adjustment for intakes of dietary fiber, magnesium, glycemic load, and total fat. Intakes of total cholesterol, animal protein, and heme iron were also significantly associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - Our data indicate that higher consumption of total red meat, especially various processed meats, may increase risk of developing type 2 diabetes in women.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=4444230462&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=4444230462&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2337/diacare.27.9.2108

DO - 10.2337/diacare.27.9.2108

M3 - Article

C2 - 15333470

AN - SCOPUS:4444230462

VL - 27

SP - 2108

EP - 2115

JO - Diabetes Care

JF - Diabetes Care

SN - 1935-5548

IS - 9

ER -