Atherosclerosis is widely accepted to be a chronic inflammatory disease, and the immunological response to the accumulation of LDL is believed to play a critical role in the development of this disease. 1,4-Dihydropyridine-type MAA-adducted LDL has been implicated in atherosclerosis. Here, we have demonstrated that pure MAA-modified residues can be chemically conjugated to large proteins without by-product contamination. Using this pure antigen, we established a purified MAA-ELISA, with which a marked increase in anti-MAA antibody titer was determined at a very early stage of atherosclerosis in 3-month ApoE-/-mice fed with a normal diet. Our methods of Nå -MAA-L-lysine purification and purified antigen-based ELISA will be easily applicable for biomarker-based detection of early stage atherosclerosis in patients, as well as for the development of an adduct-specific Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-based quantification of physiological and pathological levels of MAA.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)