Complete activation of T cells requires two signals: an Ag-specific signal delivered via the TCR by the peptide-MHC complex and a second costimulatory signal largely provided by B7:CD28/CTLA-4 interactions. Previous studies have shown that B7 blockade can either ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by interfering with CD28 signaling or exacerbate the disease by concomitant blockade of CTLA-4 interaction. Therefore, we developed a functional CD28 mimic to selectively block B7:CD28 interactions. The design, synthesis, and structural and functional properties of the CD28 free peptide, the end group-blocked CD28 peptide, and its retro-inverso isomer are shown. The synthetic T cell-costimulatory receptor peptides fold into a polyproline type II helical structure commonly seen in regions of globular proteins involved in transient protein-protein interactions. The binding determinants of CD28 can be transferred onto a short peptide mimic of its ligand-binding region. The CD28 peptide mimics effectively block the expansion of encephalitogenic T cells in vitro suggesting the potential usefulness of the peptides for the treatment of autoimmune disease conditions requiring down-regulation of T cell responses.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy