The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylates CREB327/341 at a single serine residue, Ser119/133, respectively. Phosphorylation at this site creates the sequence motif SXXXS(P), a consensus site of the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) enzyme (Fiol, C. J., Mahrenholz, A. M., Wang, Y., Roeske, R. W., and Roach, P. J. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 14042-14048). We examined the phosphorylation of CREB at the SXXXS(P) consensus site and its role in CREB transactivation to cAMP induction. Neither isoform of the GSK-3 enzyme (GSK-3 α or β) utilizes CREB as its substrate unless CREB is already phosphorylated at Ser119/133. A 13-amino acid peptide containing the sequence surrounding Ser119/133 was phosphorylated by GSK-3, at Ser115/129, only after the primary phosphorylation of the peptide by PKA (at Ser119/133), suggesting that Ser115/129 is a GSK-3 phosphoacceptor site. Mutant CREB327/341 proteins containing Ser → Ala substitutions confirmed Ser115/129 as the only GSK-3 phosphorylation site. Transfection assays of wild type and mutant Gal4-CREB fusion proteins in PC12 cells demonstrated that Ser → Ala substitution of residue 129 of CREB341 impairs the transcriptional response to cAMP induction. Analogous mutation in CREB327 results in 70% decrease in its transactivation response to cAMP. In undifferentiated F9 cells, which are refractory to cAMP induction, transfected GSK-3β kinase induces a 60-fold increase in cyclic AMP response element-dependent transcription, mediated via the endogenous CREB protein. We propose that the hierarchical phosphorylation at the PKA and GSK-3 sites of CREB are essential for cAMP control of CREB.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - Dec 1 1994|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology