A specific inhibitor of mammalian kallikrein, Phe-Phe-Arg-chloromethyl ketone, inhibits the production of vasoactive substances from trout plasma by kallikrein and blocks endogenous kallikrein-like activity in trout gills

D. W. Lipke, K. R. Olson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations


The cardiovascular effects of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) have not been completely characterized in lower vertebrates. In the present study, a specific, irreversible kallikrein inhibitor, Phe-Phe-Arg-chloromethyl ketone (PPACMK) was used to examine: 1. the role of the KKS in blood pressure regulation in vivo; 2. the nature of the pressor substance formed by the action of kallikrein on trout plasma in vivo and in vitro; and 3. the presence of kallikrein in trout gills and kidney. Dorsal aortic cannulated rainbow trout were used for in vivo blood pressure assays and two colorimetric serine-protease assays were used to examine tissue kallikrein activity. PPACMK alone had no effect on blood pressure in vivo. Pretreatment of porcine kallikrein with PPACMK inhibited the enzyme's pressor effect in trout by 80% and significantly attenuated the synthesis of vasopressor substance(s) from heat-treated trout plasma in vitro. Approximately 30% of gill serine protease activity was inhibited by pretreatment with PPACMK; no PPACMK-sensitive kallikrein activity was observed in the kidney. Salt water adaptation did not affect kallikrein-specific activity in the gill. These results show that the salmonid KKS does not appear to be involved in the regulation of systemic blood pressure. Further, the formation of pressor substances from trout plasma in vivo and in vitro is due to kallikrein activity and the peptides generated are similar. A kallikrein, similar to the mammalian enzyme, is found in trout gills, suggesting that the salmonid KKS may be a local mediator of gill function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)339-346
Number of pages8
JournalFish Physiology and Biochemistry
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 1992



  • blood pressure
  • fish
  • gills
  • kallikrein inhibitors
  • kallikrein-kinin system
  • kinin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology (medical)
  • Physiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Aquatic Science

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