A stepwise approach to implementing pharmacogenetic testing in the primary care setting

Kristin Wiisanen Weitzel, Benjamin Q. Duong, Meghan J. Arwood, Aniwaa Owusu-Obeng, Noura S. Abul-Husn, Barbara A. Bernhardt, Brian Decker, Joshua C. Denny, Eric Dietrich, John Gums, Ebony B. Madden, Toni I. Pollin, Rebekah Ryanne Wu, Susanne B. Haga, Carol R. Horowitz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

2 Scopus citations


Pharmacogenetic testing can help identify primary care patients at increased risk for medication toxicity, poor response or treatment failure and inform drug therapy. While testing availability is increasing, providers are unprepared to routinely use pharmacogenetic testing for clinical decision-making. Practice-based resources are needed to overcome implementation barriers for pharmacogenetic testing in primary care.The NHGRI's IGNITE I Network (Implementing GeNomics In pracTicE; www.ignite-genomics.org) explored practice models, challenges and implementation barriers for clinical pharmacogenomics. Based on these experiences, we present a stepwise approach pharmacogenetic testing in primary care: patient identification; pharmacogenetic test ordering; interpretation and application of test results, and patient education. We present clinical factors to consider, test-ordering processes and resources, and provide guidance to apply test results and counsel patients. Practice-based resources such as this stepwise approach to clinical decision-making are important resources to equip primary care providers to use pharmacogenetic testing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1103-1112
Number of pages10
Issue number15
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • clinic
  • implementation
  • pharmacogenetics
  • pharmacogenomics
  • precision medicine
  • primary care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Genetics
  • Pharmacology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'A stepwise approach to implementing pharmacogenetic testing in the primary care setting'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Weitzel, K. W., Duong, B. Q., Arwood, M. J., Owusu-Obeng, A., Abul-Husn, N. S., Bernhardt, B. A., Decker, B., Denny, J. C., Dietrich, E., Gums, J., Madden, E. B., Pollin, T. I., Wu, R. R., Haga, S. B., & Horowitz, C. R. (2019). A stepwise approach to implementing pharmacogenetic testing in the primary care setting. Pharmacogenomics, 20(15), 1103-1112. https://doi.org/10.2217/pgs-2019-0053