Activation of APE/Ref-1 redox activity is mediated by reactive oxygen species and PKC phosphorylation

Marlene M. Hsieh, Vijay Hegde, Mark Kelley, Walter A. Deutsch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

69 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) arise through normal cellular aerobic respiration, and, in combination with external sources such as ionizing radiation, cigarette tar and smoke, and particulate matter generated by combustion, can have a profound negative effect on cellular macromolecules such as DNA that may lead to a number of human pathological disorders including accelerated aging and cancer. A major end product of ROS damage to DNA is the formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, which without removal are known to halt mRNA and DNA synthesis, or act as non-coding lesions resulting in the increased generation of DNA mutations. In human cells, the major enzyme in correcting the deleterious effects of AP sites in DNA is through the participation of AP endonuclease (APE), which initiates the removal of baseless sites in DNA through the catalytic scission of the phosphodiester bond 5′ and adjacent to an AP site. Interestingly, APE also possesses an activity (Ref-1) that controls the redox status of a number of transcription factors including Fos and Jun. The means by which APE/Ref-1 is directed to carry out such disparate roles are unknown. The presence of a number of phosphorylation sites scattered throughout both functional domains of APE/Ref-1 however offered one possible mechanism that we reasoned could play a role in dictating how this protein responds to different stimuli. Here we show that the in vitro redox activity of APE/Ref-1 is stimulated by PKC phosphorylation. Furthermore, when human cells were exposed to the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, an increase in redox activity was observed that corresponded to an increase in the phosphorylation status of APE/Ref-1. Importantly, human cells exposed to the oxidizing agent hypochlorite, followed by methyl methanesulfanate, responded with an increase in redox activity by APE/Ref-1 that also involved an increase in PKC activity and a corresponding increase in the phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1. These results suggest that the ability of APE/Ref-1 to perform its in vivo redox function is correlated to its susceptibility to PKC phosphorylation that notably occurs in response to DNA damaging agents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3116-3122
Number of pages7
JournalNucleic Acids Research
Volume29
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 15 2001

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DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase
Oxidation-Reduction
Reactive Oxygen Species
Phosphorylation
DNA
Catalytic DNA
Cell Respiration
Hypochlorous Acid
Particulate Matter
Endonucleases
Ionizing Radiation
Oxidants
Smoke
DNA Damage
Acetates
Transcription Factors
Messenger RNA
Mutation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics

Cite this

Activation of APE/Ref-1 redox activity is mediated by reactive oxygen species and PKC phosphorylation. / Hsieh, Marlene M.; Hegde, Vijay; Kelley, Mark; Deutsch, Walter A.

In: Nucleic Acids Research, Vol. 29, No. 14, 15.07.2001, p. 3116-3122.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hsieh, Marlene M. ; Hegde, Vijay ; Kelley, Mark ; Deutsch, Walter A. / Activation of APE/Ref-1 redox activity is mediated by reactive oxygen species and PKC phosphorylation. In: Nucleic Acids Research. 2001 ; Vol. 29, No. 14. pp. 3116-3122.
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