The majority of patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (AHF) initially present to the emergency department (ED). Correct diagnosis followed by prompt treatment ensures optimal outcomes. Paradoxically, identification of high risk is not the unmet need, given nearly all ED AHF patients are hospitalized; rather, it is identification of low-risk. Currently, no risk-stratification instrument can be universally recommended to safely discharge ED patients. With the exception of diagnosis, management recommendations are largely expert opinion, informed by existing evidence and tradition. In the absence of robust evidence, we propose a framework for management to guide the busy clinician.
- Acute heart failure
- Emergency department
- Observation units
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine