Acute Kidney Injury

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Acute kidney injury (AKI), defined as a sudden and sustained decrease in renal function, is a common and devastating clinical entity with an increasing incidence and an unacceptably high mortality. Renal ischemia, sepsis, and exposure to a wide variety of toxicants are the most frequent causes of AKI, and chronic renal failure and distant-organ effects may be underrecognized sequelae of AKI. Preventative strategies have been investigated largely for radiocontrast-mediated injury and include hydration, optimizing intravascular volume, and avoiding nephrotoxicants. The optimal prescription for renal replacement therapy (RRT, dialysis), including timing of initiation, dose, and modality, remains to be determined. Thus, basic and clinical studies are needed to identify biomarkers that are altered early in the course of injury and provide prognostic information; effective, specific treatments; preventative strategies; and optimal RRT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationRenal Toxicology
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages169-196
Number of pages28
Volume7
ISBN (Print)9780080468686
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 12 2010

Keywords

  • Acute kidney failure
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Apoptosis
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Endothelium
  • Inflammation
  • Ischemia
  • Kidney tubules
  • Nephrotoxicity
  • Radiocontrast media
  • Renal replacement therapy
  • Sepsis
  • Vascular endothelium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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  • Cite this

    Kelly, K. (2010). Acute Kidney Injury. In Renal Toxicology (Vol. 7, pp. 169-196). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-046884-6.00808-3