Additional Surgeries after Bladder Augmentation in Patients with Spina Bifida in the 21st Century

Konrad M. Szymanski, Rosalia Misseri, Benjamin Whittam, Nathan Hollowell, Rachel E. Hardacker, Carly R. Swenson, Martin Kaefer, Richard Rink, Mark P. Cain

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PURPOSE: We determined the long-term risks of additional surgery after bladder augmentation in a modern spina bifida cohort accounting for differential followup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with spina bifida who were born after 1972 and were followed at our institution after augmentation surgery performed between 1979 and 2018. Outcomes included diversion, bladder stones, perforation, reaugmentation, laparotomy for bowel obstruction, and benign and malignant bladder tumors. Survival analysis was used for the entire cohort and the modern cohort (detubularized and reconfigured ileocystoplasty beginning in 2000). RESULTS: A total of 413 patients were included in the study. At a median followup of 11.2 years 80.9% of the patients had undergone ileocystoplasty and 44.1% had undergone 370 additional surgeries. Ten-year risk of any reoperation was 43.9%, with 17.4% of patients undergoing 2 or more and 9.9% undergoing 3 or more additional surgeries. Outcomes included conversion to a diversion (2.7% at 10-year followup) and bladder stones (28.2% with recurrence in 52.4%) irrespective of detubularized reconfigured status (p ≥0.20). Bladder perforation risk was 9.6% for patients undergoing vs 23.7% for those not undergoing detubularized reconfigured ileocystoplasty (p=0.01). Similarly reaugmentation rate was 5.3% for patients undergoing vs 15.2% for those not undergoing detubularized reconfigured ileocystoplasty (p=0.001). Finally, 10-year reperforation risk was 32.1% for patients undergoing vs 73.8% for those not undergoing detubularized reconfigured ileocystoplasty (p=0.053). Other risks included bowel obstruction (4.5% with recurrence in 15.8%), nephrogenic adenoma (2.2% with regrowth in 48.2%) and malignancy (0.0% at 20 years). For 222 patients in the modern cohort (median followup 9.1 years) 10-year risk of any reoperation was 46.0%, which consisted of diversion in 4.0%, stones in 32.9% (recurrence in 44.5%), perforation in 8.8% (recurrence in 42.2%), reaugmentation in 4.3%, obstruction in 4.9% (recurrence in 10.0%), adenoma in 4.7% (regrowth in 40.0%) and cancer in 0.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Bladder augmentation is long-lasting. While benefiting continence and renal outcomes, this operation frequently requires additional surgeries, necessitating close followup. Since survival analysis based risks of alternative management options such as incontinent diversion are unavailable, comparisons with augmentation are unfeasible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1207-1213
Number of pages7
JournalThe Journal of urology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020


  • meningomyelocele
  • neurogenic
  • spinal dysraphism
  • urinary bladder
  • urologic surgical procedures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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