Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction in White men in the United States: alcohol, tobacco, and socioeconomic factors

Linda Morris Brown, Debra T. Silverman, Linda M. Pottern, Janet B. Schoenberg, Raymond S. Greenberg, G. Marie Swanson, Jonathan M. Liff, Ann G. Schwartz, Richard B. Hayes, William J. Blot, Robert N. Hoover

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

168 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In the United States, the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, including the esophagogastric (EG) junction, has been increasing rapidly over the past two decades. Except for an association with Barrett's esophagus, little is known about the etiology of these cancers. A population-based case-control interview study of 174 White men with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and 750 controls living in three areas of the United States offered the opportunity to investigate the relationship of these cancers with smoking, alcohol drinking, socioeconomic factors, and history of ulcer. There were significantly elevated risks for men who smoked cigarettes (odds ratio [OR]=2.1) or drank liquor (OR=1.6). For both cigarette smoking and liquor drinking, there were significant dose gradients with amount consumed. No reduction in risk was observed following smoking cessation. Subjects who switched from nonfilter to filter cigarettes experienced half the risk of those who only smoked nonfilter cigarettes. Inverse risk gradients were seen with increasing recent annual income, with the highest risk (OR=3.4) for the lowest category. The risk for a history of ulcer (OR=1.7), especially of the duodenum (OR=2.2), was also significantly elevated. These data suggest that tobacco and alcohol may be etiologic factors for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and EG junction, but these factors do not appear to explain the rapid rise in incidence of these tumors. The associations with low social class and history of ulcer need to be explored in greater detail along with other factors that may account for the temporal trends in esophageal adenocarcinomas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)333-340
Number of pages8
JournalCancer Causes and Control
Volume5
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1994
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Esophagogastric Junction
Tobacco
Odds Ratio
Alcohols
Tobacco Products
Ulcer
Smoking
Neoplasms
Barrett Esophagus
Incidence
Smoking Cessation
Risk Reduction Behavior
Duodenum
Social Class
Alcohol Drinking
Drinking
Adenocarcinoma Of Esophagus
Case-Control Studies
Adenocarcinoma
Interviews

Keywords

  • Adenocarcinoma
  • alcohol
  • case-control study
  • esophagus
  • males
  • social class
  • tobacco
  • ulcer
  • United States

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Epidemiology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Brown, L. M., Silverman, D. T., Pottern, L. M., Schoenberg, J. B., Greenberg, R. S., Swanson, G. M., ... Hoover, R. N. (1994). Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction in White men in the United States: alcohol, tobacco, and socioeconomic factors. Cancer Causes and Control, 5(4), 333-340. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01804984

Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction in White men in the United States : alcohol, tobacco, and socioeconomic factors. / Brown, Linda Morris; Silverman, Debra T.; Pottern, Linda M.; Schoenberg, Janet B.; Greenberg, Raymond S.; Swanson, G. Marie; Liff, Jonathan M.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Hayes, Richard B.; Blot, William J.; Hoover, Robert N.

In: Cancer Causes and Control, Vol. 5, No. 4, 07.1994, p. 333-340.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Brown, LM, Silverman, DT, Pottern, LM, Schoenberg, JB, Greenberg, RS, Swanson, GM, Liff, JM, Schwartz, AG, Hayes, RB, Blot, WJ & Hoover, RN 1994, 'Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction in White men in the United States: alcohol, tobacco, and socioeconomic factors', Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 333-340. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01804984
Brown, Linda Morris ; Silverman, Debra T. ; Pottern, Linda M. ; Schoenberg, Janet B. ; Greenberg, Raymond S. ; Swanson, G. Marie ; Liff, Jonathan M. ; Schwartz, Ann G. ; Hayes, Richard B. ; Blot, William J. ; Hoover, Robert N. / Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction in White men in the United States : alcohol, tobacco, and socioeconomic factors. In: Cancer Causes and Control. 1994 ; Vol. 5, No. 4. pp. 333-340.
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abstract = "In the United States, the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, including the esophagogastric (EG) junction, has been increasing rapidly over the past two decades. Except for an association with Barrett's esophagus, little is known about the etiology of these cancers. A population-based case-control interview study of 174 White men with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and 750 controls living in three areas of the United States offered the opportunity to investigate the relationship of these cancers with smoking, alcohol drinking, socioeconomic factors, and history of ulcer. There were significantly elevated risks for men who smoked cigarettes (odds ratio [OR]=2.1) or drank liquor (OR=1.6). For both cigarette smoking and liquor drinking, there were significant dose gradients with amount consumed. No reduction in risk was observed following smoking cessation. Subjects who switched from nonfilter to filter cigarettes experienced half the risk of those who only smoked nonfilter cigarettes. Inverse risk gradients were seen with increasing recent annual income, with the highest risk (OR=3.4) for the lowest category. The risk for a history of ulcer (OR=1.7), especially of the duodenum (OR=2.2), was also significantly elevated. These data suggest that tobacco and alcohol may be etiologic factors for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and EG junction, but these factors do not appear to explain the rapid rise in incidence of these tumors. The associations with low social class and history of ulcer need to be explored in greater detail along with other factors that may account for the temporal trends in esophageal adenocarcinomas.",
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