Viral infection is commonly observed after bone-marrow transplantation. We isolated adenovirus from 51 of 1051 patients undergoing marrow transplantation between 1976 and 1982. Of the 46 isolates available for typing, 13 (27.7 per cent) were of the closely related species 11, 34, or 35 (subgenus B). All 13 of the patients with these species had positive urine cultures. The species have previously been associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or with renal transplantation but are not commonly found in community surveys. Invasive infection was confirmed by biopsy or autopsy in 10 of 51 patients. Seven of the 10 had virus isolated from lung, and 4 died from pneumonia attributed to adenovirus. Two of the five patients with renal isolates had evidence of virally induced renal impairment, and both patients with liver isolates had adenovirus hepatitis. There was no common source that accounted for these adenovirus infections, and the most likely source of infection appeared to be endogenous viral reactivation. The only identifiable risk factor for the development of infection and for severe disease was the presence of moderate to severe graft versus host disease. (N Engl J Med 1985; 312:529–33.).
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