Adverse effects of autoclaved diets on the progression of chronic kidney disease and chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder in rats

Annabel Biruete, Shruthi Srinivasan, Kalisha D. O'Neill, Colby J. Vorland, Kathleen M. Hill Gallant, Weijing Cai, Jaime Uribarri, Nancy Johnston, Matthew R. Allen, Neal X. Chen, Sharon M. Moe

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Background: Autoclaving rodent diets is common in laboratory animals, but autoclaving increases the formation of dietary advanced glycation end-products (AGE). We studied the effect of autoclaved (AC) diet alone or in combination with a diet high in bioavailable phosphorus on biochemistries of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), intestinal gene expression, and oxidative stress. Methods: Male CKD rats (Cy/+) and normal littermates were fed 1 of 3 diets: AC 0.7% phosphorus grain-based diet for 28 weeks (AC); AC diet for 17 weeks followed by non-autoclaved (Non-AC) 0.7% phosphorus casein diet until 28 weeks (AC + Casein); or Non-AC diet for 16 weeks followed by a Non-AC purified diet until 30 weeks (Non-AC + Casein). Results: AC diets contained ∼3× higher AGEs and levels varied depending on the location within the autoclave. Rats fed the AC and AC + Casein diets had higher total AGEs and oxidative stress, irrespective of kidney function. Kidney function was more severely compromised in CKD rats fed AC or AC + Casein compared to Non-AC + Casein. There was a disease-by-diet interaction for plasma phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and c-terminal fibroblast growth factor-23, driven by high values in the CKD rats fed the AC + Casein diet. Compared to Non-AC + Casein, AC and AC + Casein-fed groups had increased expression of receptor of AGEs and intestinal NADPH oxidase dual oxidase-2, independent of kidney function. Conclusions: Autoclaving rodent diets impacts the progression of CKD and CKD-MBD, highlighting the critical importance of standardizing diets in experiments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican journal of nephrology
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2020



  • Advanced glycation end-products
  • Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder
  • Diet
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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