Adverse Surgical Outcomes Associated with Robotic Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection Among Patients with Testicular Cancer

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Surgery for metastatic testicular disease has been an essential factor in the long-term cure rates for men with testicular germ cell tumors. Robotic approaches to retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (R-RPLND) have been proposed as an alternative to open surgery with few if any adverse events reported. We report the clinical course for five recent patients referred to our center for recurrences after R-RPLND, focusing on recurrence patterns, treatment burden, and treatment-related morbidity and mortality. The median time to recurrence after R-RPLND was 259 d. The recurrence patterns after R-RPLND were aberrant from our past experience in managing recurrences after open RPLND. One man experienced an in-field recurrence located in close proximitry to an undivided lumbar vessel. Four patients had out-of-field recurrence in abnormal locations: pericolic space invading the sigmoid colon, peritoneal carcinomatosis with a perinephric mass, large-volume liver lesions with suprahilar disease extending into the retrocrural space, and lymph nodes in the celiac axis. The treatment burden was high: the five men were subjected to 12 different chemotherapy regimens and three underwent additional surgeries. Three patients developed significant cisplatin-induced toxicity. One patient died due to progression of testicular cancer after failing all chemotherapy and surgical options. Patient summary: We report our initial experience in managing patients with testicular cancer referred to our institution after robotic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND). We found that the recurrences were highly variable and in unusual locations and were associated with a high treatment burden. We conclude that further investigation into the safety and long-term oncologic efficacy of robotic RPLND is necessary before widespread implementation. The clinical scenarios we report should serve as a word of caution with regard to the widespread implementation of robotic operative approaches for men with germ cell tumors. It is not clear why these unusual recurrence patterns occurred, but further scrutiny going forward would be prudent.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEuropean Urology
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Recurrences
  • Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection
  • Robotic surgery
  • Testis cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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