Alcohol-Preferring P Rats Exhibit Elevated Motor Impulsivity Concomitant with Operant Responding and Self-Administration of Alcohol

Steven Wesley Beckwith, Cristine Lynn Czachowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Increased levels of impulsivity are associated with increased illicit drug use and alcoholism. Previous research in our laboratory has shown that increased levels of delay discounting (a decision-making form of impulsivity) are related to appetitive processes governing alcohol self-administration as opposed to purely consummatory processes. Specifically, the high-seeking/high-drinking alcohol-preferring P rats showed increased delay discounting compared to nonselected Long Evans rats (LE) whereas the high-drinking/moderate-seeking HAD2 rats did not. The P rats also displayed a perseverative pattern of behavior such that during operant alcohol self-administration they exhibited greater resistance to extinction. Methods: One explanation for the previous findings is that P rats have a deficit in response inhibition. This study followed up on this possibility by utilizing a countermanding paradigm (stop signal reaction time [SSRT] task) followed by operant self-administration of alcohol across increasing fixed ratio requirements (FR; 1, 2, 5, 10, and 15 responses). In separate animals, 24-hour access 2-bottle choice (10% EtOH vs. water) drinking was assessed. Results: In the SSRT task, P rats exhibited an increased SSRT compared to both LE and HAD2 rats indicating a decrease in behavioral inhibition in the P rats. Also, P rats showed increased operant self-administration across all FRs and the greatest increase in responding with increasing FR requirements. Conversely, the HAD2 and LE had shorter SSRTs and lower levels of operant alcohol self-administration. However, for 2-bottle choice drinking HAD2s and P rats consumed more EtOH and had a greater preference for EtOH compared to LE. Conclusions: These data extend previous findings showing the P rats to have increased delay discounting (decision-making impulsivity) and suggest that P rats also have a lack of behavioral inhibition (motor impulsivity). This supports the notion that P rats are a highly impulsive as well as "high-seeking" model of alcoholism, and that the HAD2s' elevated levels of alcohol consumption are not mediated via appetitive processes or impulsivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1100-1110
Number of pages11
JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume40
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2016

Fingerprint

Self Administration
Impulsive Behavior
Rats
Alcohols
Long Evans Rats
Reaction Time
Alcohol Drinking
Alcoholism
Drinking
Decision Making
Bottles
Decision making
Street Drugs
Drinking Water

Keywords

  • Alcohol Self-Administration
  • Impulsivity
  • Rat
  • Selected Line

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Toxicology

Cite this

Alcohol-Preferring P Rats Exhibit Elevated Motor Impulsivity Concomitant with Operant Responding and Self-Administration of Alcohol. / Beckwith, Steven Wesley; Czachowski, Cristine Lynn.

In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Vol. 40, No. 5, 01.05.2016, p. 1100-1110.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{bcf0eab52a684777ae865c2155e9e0e0,
title = "Alcohol-Preferring P Rats Exhibit Elevated Motor Impulsivity Concomitant with Operant Responding and Self-Administration of Alcohol",
abstract = "Background: Increased levels of impulsivity are associated with increased illicit drug use and alcoholism. Previous research in our laboratory has shown that increased levels of delay discounting (a decision-making form of impulsivity) are related to appetitive processes governing alcohol self-administration as opposed to purely consummatory processes. Specifically, the high-seeking/high-drinking alcohol-preferring P rats showed increased delay discounting compared to nonselected Long Evans rats (LE) whereas the high-drinking/moderate-seeking HAD2 rats did not. The P rats also displayed a perseverative pattern of behavior such that during operant alcohol self-administration they exhibited greater resistance to extinction. Methods: One explanation for the previous findings is that P rats have a deficit in response inhibition. This study followed up on this possibility by utilizing a countermanding paradigm (stop signal reaction time [SSRT] task) followed by operant self-administration of alcohol across increasing fixed ratio requirements (FR; 1, 2, 5, 10, and 15 responses). In separate animals, 24-hour access 2-bottle choice (10{\%} EtOH vs. water) drinking was assessed. Results: In the SSRT task, P rats exhibited an increased SSRT compared to both LE and HAD2 rats indicating a decrease in behavioral inhibition in the P rats. Also, P rats showed increased operant self-administration across all FRs and the greatest increase in responding with increasing FR requirements. Conversely, the HAD2 and LE had shorter SSRTs and lower levels of operant alcohol self-administration. However, for 2-bottle choice drinking HAD2s and P rats consumed more EtOH and had a greater preference for EtOH compared to LE. Conclusions: These data extend previous findings showing the P rats to have increased delay discounting (decision-making impulsivity) and suggest that P rats also have a lack of behavioral inhibition (motor impulsivity). This supports the notion that P rats are a highly impulsive as well as {"}high-seeking{"} model of alcoholism, and that the HAD2s' elevated levels of alcohol consumption are not mediated via appetitive processes or impulsivity.",
keywords = "Alcohol Self-Administration, Impulsivity, Rat, Selected Line",
author = "Beckwith, {Steven Wesley} and Czachowski, {Cristine Lynn}",
year = "2016",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/acer.13044",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "40",
pages = "1100--1110",
journal = "Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research",
issn = "0145-6008",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Alcohol-Preferring P Rats Exhibit Elevated Motor Impulsivity Concomitant with Operant Responding and Self-Administration of Alcohol

AU - Beckwith, Steven Wesley

AU - Czachowski, Cristine Lynn

PY - 2016/5/1

Y1 - 2016/5/1

N2 - Background: Increased levels of impulsivity are associated with increased illicit drug use and alcoholism. Previous research in our laboratory has shown that increased levels of delay discounting (a decision-making form of impulsivity) are related to appetitive processes governing alcohol self-administration as opposed to purely consummatory processes. Specifically, the high-seeking/high-drinking alcohol-preferring P rats showed increased delay discounting compared to nonselected Long Evans rats (LE) whereas the high-drinking/moderate-seeking HAD2 rats did not. The P rats also displayed a perseverative pattern of behavior such that during operant alcohol self-administration they exhibited greater resistance to extinction. Methods: One explanation for the previous findings is that P rats have a deficit in response inhibition. This study followed up on this possibility by utilizing a countermanding paradigm (stop signal reaction time [SSRT] task) followed by operant self-administration of alcohol across increasing fixed ratio requirements (FR; 1, 2, 5, 10, and 15 responses). In separate animals, 24-hour access 2-bottle choice (10% EtOH vs. water) drinking was assessed. Results: In the SSRT task, P rats exhibited an increased SSRT compared to both LE and HAD2 rats indicating a decrease in behavioral inhibition in the P rats. Also, P rats showed increased operant self-administration across all FRs and the greatest increase in responding with increasing FR requirements. Conversely, the HAD2 and LE had shorter SSRTs and lower levels of operant alcohol self-administration. However, for 2-bottle choice drinking HAD2s and P rats consumed more EtOH and had a greater preference for EtOH compared to LE. Conclusions: These data extend previous findings showing the P rats to have increased delay discounting (decision-making impulsivity) and suggest that P rats also have a lack of behavioral inhibition (motor impulsivity). This supports the notion that P rats are a highly impulsive as well as "high-seeking" model of alcoholism, and that the HAD2s' elevated levels of alcohol consumption are not mediated via appetitive processes or impulsivity.

AB - Background: Increased levels of impulsivity are associated with increased illicit drug use and alcoholism. Previous research in our laboratory has shown that increased levels of delay discounting (a decision-making form of impulsivity) are related to appetitive processes governing alcohol self-administration as opposed to purely consummatory processes. Specifically, the high-seeking/high-drinking alcohol-preferring P rats showed increased delay discounting compared to nonselected Long Evans rats (LE) whereas the high-drinking/moderate-seeking HAD2 rats did not. The P rats also displayed a perseverative pattern of behavior such that during operant alcohol self-administration they exhibited greater resistance to extinction. Methods: One explanation for the previous findings is that P rats have a deficit in response inhibition. This study followed up on this possibility by utilizing a countermanding paradigm (stop signal reaction time [SSRT] task) followed by operant self-administration of alcohol across increasing fixed ratio requirements (FR; 1, 2, 5, 10, and 15 responses). In separate animals, 24-hour access 2-bottle choice (10% EtOH vs. water) drinking was assessed. Results: In the SSRT task, P rats exhibited an increased SSRT compared to both LE and HAD2 rats indicating a decrease in behavioral inhibition in the P rats. Also, P rats showed increased operant self-administration across all FRs and the greatest increase in responding with increasing FR requirements. Conversely, the HAD2 and LE had shorter SSRTs and lower levels of operant alcohol self-administration. However, for 2-bottle choice drinking HAD2s and P rats consumed more EtOH and had a greater preference for EtOH compared to LE. Conclusions: These data extend previous findings showing the P rats to have increased delay discounting (decision-making impulsivity) and suggest that P rats also have a lack of behavioral inhibition (motor impulsivity). This supports the notion that P rats are a highly impulsive as well as "high-seeking" model of alcoholism, and that the HAD2s' elevated levels of alcohol consumption are not mediated via appetitive processes or impulsivity.

KW - Alcohol Self-Administration

KW - Impulsivity

KW - Rat

KW - Selected Line

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84962777036&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84962777036&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/acer.13044

DO - 10.1111/acer.13044

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84962777036

VL - 40

SP - 1100

EP - 1110

JO - Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research

JF - Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research

SN - 0145-6008

IS - 5

ER -