Background. We have developed a knockout mouse model for adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, a condition that often leads to 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA) nephrolithiasis in humans. Aprt knockout male mice develop severe renal damage by three months of age, but this is strain specific. Renal damage in female mice is less pronounced than in males. The gene level changes that promote renal injury in APRT-deficient mice are not known. Methods. We used mRNA differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) to analyze renal gene expression changes in APRT-deficient male and female mice (strain C3H) compared with age- and sex-matched Aprt heterozygote controls. The differentially amplified bands were reamplified, cloned, sequenced, and queried against the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant databases using the Basic Alignment Search Tool. Relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the results of DD-PCR for a selected number of genes in one-, three-, and six-month-old male and female mice. Results. Sixty-three differentially amplified bands were identified, including 21 for known genes, and 8 of these were examined further. In three-month-old APRT-deficient male mice, the expression of C10 was increased tenfold, and there was a fourfold to sevenfold increase in the expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS-1), MGP (matrix Gla protein), and lysyl oxidase (LOX). The expression of cholecystokinin-A receptor (CCKAR), imprinted multimembrane-spanning polyspecific transporter-like gene 1 (IMPT-1), and kidney androgen-regulated protein (KAP) was diminished twofold to fourfold, but there was little or no change in the expression of organic anion transporter (OATP). Except for a more than tenfold increase in C10 expression and up to tenfold decrease in KAP expression, APRT-deficient female mice did not show significant changes in gene expression compared with controls. Conclusions. These findings suggest that (1) there are sex-related differences in gene expression in DHA lithiasis, possibly caused by increased deposition of DHA crystals in male compared with female kidneys; and (2) the expression of certain genes (for example, C10) may simply be an indication of nonspecific cellular stimulation and may not be related to renal injury.
- Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency
- Gene knockout mice
- Renal gene
- Urinary tract infection
ASJC Scopus subject areas