OBJECTIVE Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors lower clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP), possibly through their natriuretic action. However, it remains unclear whether this BP-lowering effect is dose dependent and different from that of low-dose hydrochlorothiazide. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to quantify the association of the dose with response of ambulatory BP to SGLT-2 inhibition and to provide comparative evaluation with low-dose hydrochlorothiazide. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane database of clinical trials from inception of each database through 22 August 2018. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting treatment effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors on ambulatory BP. We extracted data on the mean difference between the active treatment and placebo groups in change from baseline (CFB) of ambulatory systolic and diastolic BP. RESULTS We identified seven RCTs (involving 2,381 participants) comparing SGLT-2 inhibitors with placebo. Of these, two RCTs included low-dose hydrochlorothiazide as active comparator. CFB in 24-h systolic BP between SGLT-2 inhibitor and placebo groups was 23.62 mmHg (95% CI 24.29, 22.94) and in diastolic BP was 21.70 mmHg (95% CI 22.13, 21.26). BP lowering with SGLT-2 inhibition was more potent during daytime than during nighttime. The CFB in ambulatory BP was comparable between low-dose and high-dose subgroups and was similar to that for low-dose hydrochlorothiazide. Eligible RCTs did not evaluate cardiovascular outcomes/mortality. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis shows that SGLT-2 inhibitors provoke an average reduction of systolic/diastolic BP 3.62/1.70 mmHg in 24-h ambulatory BP. This BP-lowering effect remains unmodified regardless of the dose of SGLT-2 inhibitor and is comparable with BP-lowering efficacy of low-dose hydrochlorothiazide.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing