An assessment of comparative acute toxicity of diisopropyl-fluorophosphate, Tabun, Sarin, and Soman in relation to cholinergic and GABAergic enzyme activities in rats

Subbiah Sivam, Beth Hoskins, Ing K. Ho

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Abstract

The sc LD50s (μmol/kg) in rats for diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), Tabun, Sarin, and Soman were 14.5, 1.9, 1.4, and 0.88, respectively. The relative potency was as follows: DFP <Tabun <Sarin <Soman (1:7.6:10.4:16.4). The relative potencies correlated with the in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition (in terms of the IC50) by these compounds, in whole brain homogenates or the purified bovine erythrocyte AChE. There was a dose versus time for mortality relationship for all four compounds; the average time for death decreased with increase in dose. However, there was no correlation between time for death and the extent of AChE inhibition. The striatal as well as other regional (medulla, diencephalon, cortex, and cerebellum) AChE activity was inhibited over 90% of the control, by the lethal doses of these compounds. None of the lethal or sublethal doses had any apparent effect on choline acetyltransferase (CAT) or GABA-transaminase activities. Glutamic acid decarboxylase activity was increased by Soman, Sarin, and Tabun at certain lethal doses but was not affected by DFP even at the lethal dose. The results indicate that (a) the acute toxicity of organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors is directly related to the inhibition of AChE though there is a wide difference in their potency; (b) a substantial inhibition of AChE activity (over 90% of control) is necessary for lethality to ensue after an acute exposure and the margins between lethal and nonlethal doses are extremely small; and (c) qualitative differences seem to exist among the various organophosphates in affecting noncholinergic neurotransmitter enzymes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)531-538
Number of pages8
JournalFundamental and Applied Toxicology
Volume4
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1984
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

fluorophosphate
Sarin
Soman
Enzyme activity
Acetylcholinesterase
Cholinergic Agents
Toxicity
Rats
Isoflurophate
Enzymes
Organophosphates
4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase
Corpus Striatum
Diencephalon
Glutamate Decarboxylase
Choline O-Acetyltransferase
Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Cerebellum
Inhibitory Concentration 50
Neurotransmitter Agents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

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title = "An assessment of comparative acute toxicity of diisopropyl-fluorophosphate, Tabun, Sarin, and Soman in relation to cholinergic and GABAergic enzyme activities in rats",
abstract = "The sc LD50s (μmol/kg) in rats for diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), Tabun, Sarin, and Soman were 14.5, 1.9, 1.4, and 0.88, respectively. The relative potency was as follows: DFP <Tabun <Sarin <Soman (1:7.6:10.4:16.4). The relative potencies correlated with the in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition (in terms of the IC50) by these compounds, in whole brain homogenates or the purified bovine erythrocyte AChE. There was a dose versus time for mortality relationship for all four compounds; the average time for death decreased with increase in dose. However, there was no correlation between time for death and the extent of AChE inhibition. The striatal as well as other regional (medulla, diencephalon, cortex, and cerebellum) AChE activity was inhibited over 90{\%} of the control, by the lethal doses of these compounds. None of the lethal or sublethal doses had any apparent effect on choline acetyltransferase (CAT) or GABA-transaminase activities. Glutamic acid decarboxylase activity was increased by Soman, Sarin, and Tabun at certain lethal doses but was not affected by DFP even at the lethal dose. The results indicate that (a) the acute toxicity of organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors is directly related to the inhibition of AChE though there is a wide difference in their potency; (b) a substantial inhibition of AChE activity (over 90{\%} of control) is necessary for lethality to ensue after an acute exposure and the margins between lethal and nonlethal doses are extremely small; and (c) qualitative differences seem to exist among the various organophosphates in affecting noncholinergic neurotransmitter enzymes.",
author = "Subbiah Sivam and Beth Hoskins and Ho, {Ing K.}",
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T1 - An assessment of comparative acute toxicity of diisopropyl-fluorophosphate, Tabun, Sarin, and Soman in relation to cholinergic and GABAergic enzyme activities in rats

AU - Sivam, Subbiah

AU - Hoskins, Beth

AU - Ho, Ing K.

PY - 1984

Y1 - 1984

N2 - The sc LD50s (μmol/kg) in rats for diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), Tabun, Sarin, and Soman were 14.5, 1.9, 1.4, and 0.88, respectively. The relative potency was as follows: DFP <Tabun <Sarin <Soman (1:7.6:10.4:16.4). The relative potencies correlated with the in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition (in terms of the IC50) by these compounds, in whole brain homogenates or the purified bovine erythrocyte AChE. There was a dose versus time for mortality relationship for all four compounds; the average time for death decreased with increase in dose. However, there was no correlation between time for death and the extent of AChE inhibition. The striatal as well as other regional (medulla, diencephalon, cortex, and cerebellum) AChE activity was inhibited over 90% of the control, by the lethal doses of these compounds. None of the lethal or sublethal doses had any apparent effect on choline acetyltransferase (CAT) or GABA-transaminase activities. Glutamic acid decarboxylase activity was increased by Soman, Sarin, and Tabun at certain lethal doses but was not affected by DFP even at the lethal dose. The results indicate that (a) the acute toxicity of organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors is directly related to the inhibition of AChE though there is a wide difference in their potency; (b) a substantial inhibition of AChE activity (over 90% of control) is necessary for lethality to ensue after an acute exposure and the margins between lethal and nonlethal doses are extremely small; and (c) qualitative differences seem to exist among the various organophosphates in affecting noncholinergic neurotransmitter enzymes.

AB - The sc LD50s (μmol/kg) in rats for diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), Tabun, Sarin, and Soman were 14.5, 1.9, 1.4, and 0.88, respectively. The relative potency was as follows: DFP <Tabun <Sarin <Soman (1:7.6:10.4:16.4). The relative potencies correlated with the in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition (in terms of the IC50) by these compounds, in whole brain homogenates or the purified bovine erythrocyte AChE. There was a dose versus time for mortality relationship for all four compounds; the average time for death decreased with increase in dose. However, there was no correlation between time for death and the extent of AChE inhibition. The striatal as well as other regional (medulla, diencephalon, cortex, and cerebellum) AChE activity was inhibited over 90% of the control, by the lethal doses of these compounds. None of the lethal or sublethal doses had any apparent effect on choline acetyltransferase (CAT) or GABA-transaminase activities. Glutamic acid decarboxylase activity was increased by Soman, Sarin, and Tabun at certain lethal doses but was not affected by DFP even at the lethal dose. The results indicate that (a) the acute toxicity of organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors is directly related to the inhibition of AChE though there is a wide difference in their potency; (b) a substantial inhibition of AChE activity (over 90% of control) is necessary for lethality to ensue after an acute exposure and the margins between lethal and nonlethal doses are extremely small; and (c) qualitative differences seem to exist among the various organophosphates in affecting noncholinergic neurotransmitter enzymes.

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