An in situ caries study on the interplay between fluoride dose and concentration in milk

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Objectives: This randomized, cross-over in situ study investigated the impact of sodium fluoride dose and concentration in milk on caries lesion rehardening, fluoridation and acid resistance. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects wore two gauze-covered enamel specimens with preformed lesions placed buccally on their mandibular partial dentures for three weeks. Participants used fluoride-free dentifrice throughout the study and consumed once daily one of the five study treatments: no fluoride in 200 ml milk (0F-200), 1.5 or 3 mg fluoride in either 100 (1.5F-100; 3F-100) or 200 ml milk (1.5F-200; 3F-200). After three weeks, specimens were retrieved. Knoop hardness was used to determine rehardening and resistance to a secondary acid challenge. Enamel fluoride uptake (EFU) was determined using a microbiopsy technique. Results: A linear fluoride dose-response was observed for all study variables which exhibited similar overall patterns. All the treatments resulted in rehardening, with 0F-200 inducing the least and 3F-100 the most. Apart from 1.5F-200, all the treatments resulted in statistically significantly more rehardening compared to 0F-200. The fluoride doses delivered in 100 ml provided directionally although not statistically significantly more rehardening than those delivered in 200 ml milk. EFU data exhibited better differentiation between treatments: all fluoridated milk treatments delivered more fluoride to lesions than 0F-200; fluoride in 100 ml demonstrated statistically significantly higher EFU than fluoride in 200 ml milk. Findings for acid resistance were also more discerning than rehardening data. Conclusions: The present study has provided further evidence for the anti-caries benefits of fluoridated milk. Both fluoride dose and concentration appear to impact the cariostatic properties of fluoride in milk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)883-890
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Dentistry
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2014


  • Caries
  • Fluoride
  • In situ
  • Milk
  • Rehardening
  • Softening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

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