An introduction to myelodysplastic syndromes: Presentation, diagnosis, classification, and prognostication

Hamid Sayar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogenous group of clonal bone marrow stem cell disorders yielding abnormal blood and bone marrow morphology, ineffective hematopoiesis, and a tendency of progression to acute leukemia. Various underlying pathobiologic mechanisms have been proposed, with ultimate abnormality attributed to acquired chromosomal, genetic, and epigenetic defects leading to disturbed hematopoietic stem cell function. Incidence of MDS increases with age, and in most cases the etiology is undetermined. MDS present with a spectrum of uni-, bi- or tri-lineage cytopenia(s) and relevant clinical complications. The diagnosis of MDS relies mainly upon review of bone marrow morphology, which is subject to reviewer's experience and therefore inter-personal variation. Despite enormous progress, the risk-stratification and prognostic prediction of MDS remains challenging. This chapter will serve as a detailed introduction to this edited collection. The chapter will provide a review on etiology, basic pathobiologic concepts, clinical presentation, diagnosis, classification and prognostication of the disease. Expert opinion and practical considerations particularly for diagnostic challenges will be offered. Less common and atypical forms of MDS including overlap syndromes will also be discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-24
Number of pages24
JournalUnknown Journal
StatePublished - Jan 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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