Objective: Transmural heterogeneity in the ventricular free wall, enhanced by the midmyocardial long action potential duration (APD) of M cells, plays an important role in the arrhythmogenesis of long QT syndrome. Although we observed dynamic expression of M cell phenotypes in the canine ventricular free wall, it is still unclear whether similar phenomena are present in the interventricular septum. This study evaluated transmural heterogeneity of APD in the septum. Methods: We isolated and perfused 22 canine septal preparations through the septal branch of the anterior descending coronary artery, and optically mapped 256 channels of action potentials on their cut-exposed transseptal surfaces before and after treatment with sotalol (IKr blocker), anemone toxin II (ATX-II, which slows the inactivation of INa), or drug-free state in 6, 9, and 22 preparations, respectively. The preparations were paced from the left ventricular endocardium at cycle lengths of 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 ms. Results: We observed progressively lengthening of APD across the septum from the right ventricular to the left ventricular endocardium without a midmyocardial maximum under all conditions. All action potentials had minor phase-1 notches, resembling the endocardial action potential in the ventricular free wall. Increasing cycle lengths and concentrations of sotalol and ATX-II prolonged APD without midmyocardial preference and increased the transseptal dispersion of APDs. Conclusions: Canine interventricular septal action potentials are similar in shape to the endocardial action potentials in the ventricular free wall, with smooth transseptal transition in APD. We found no phenotypical expression of M cells in the canine interventricular septum.
- Arhythmia (mechanisms)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine