Analysis of urinary calculi using an infrared microspectroscopic surface reflectance imaging technique

Jennifer C. Anderson, James C. Williams, Andrew P. Evan, Keith W. Condon, André J. Sommer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Scopus citations


This investigation highlights the use of infrared microspectroscopy for the morphological analysis of urinary stones. The research presented here has utilized the reflectance mode of an infrared microscope for use in creating chemically specific maps of cross-sectioned renal calculi surfaces, precisely showing the placement of renal stone components in a calculus sample. The method has been applied to renal stones of both single and multiple components consisting primarily of hydroxyapatite, calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate. Factors discussed include the photometric accuracy of the spectra obtained, a comparison of the surface reflectance method with existing methods such as diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) analysis, and the influence of specular reflectance between polished and unpolished sample spectra. Full spectral maps of cross-sectioned renal stones provided positive localization of components using qualitatively accurate spectra similar in appearance to DRIFTS spectra. Unlike ATR and DRIFTS spectra, surface reflectance spectra lack photometric accuracy and are therefore not quantifiable; at present, however, spectra are suitable for qualitative analysis. It was found that specular reflectance increases minimally with a highly polished stone cross-section surface, though qualitative data is not affected. Surface reflectance imaging of sections of renal stones is useful for determining the identity of stone components while simultaneously providing precise locations of mineral components within the stone using presently available instruments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)41-48
Number of pages8
JournalUrological Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2007


  • Infrared
  • Renal stones
  • Surface reflectance
  • Urinary calculi

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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