The purpose of this review is to define animal models of chronic venous disease and to demonstrate how animal studies can impact our understanding and treatment of this disorder. To this end an extensive literature search was conducted highlighting potential animal models of chronic lower extremity venous disease. Scientific investigations using animals to study particular aspects of this disease are also reviewed. This review was conducted by members of the Committee on Research of the American Venous Forum to help provide direction for future venous research endeavors. Useful models of chronic venous occlusive disease involve controlled ligation of a major lower limb vein and multiple tributaries. Such a model can provide sustained venous hypertension and studies using this model have confirmed that an isodiametric graft can provide early hemodynamic relief. Models of primary, postphlebitic, and isolated chronic deep venous insufficiency are available for study. Valve repair or transplantation can positively impact the insufficiency observed in these models. Investigations into valve substitutes have generally been disappointing or are undergoing early evaluation. In conclusion, animal models for the study of some aspects of chronic venous disease do exist and have already affected our clinical approach to patients. The scientific study of basic pathophysiology, diagnostics, end-organ response, and long-term surgical treatments of this disorder in well-controlled animal experiments have not been conducted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine