Painful distal sensory neuropathy is the most common neurological complication of HIV1 infection. There are several neuropathic pain syndromes associated with the disease; however, the most common is a sensory neuropathy called HIV sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN). HIV-SN can be subdivided into subacute or chronic distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) and subacute antiretroviral- induced toxic neuropathy (ATN). Both forms involve sensory loss and neuropathic pain. DSP occurs in up to 7-35% of HIV1-infected individuals and upwards of 34% of children infected with HIV1, while ATN develops following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) treatment in up to 52% of patients. The mechanisms of HIV-SN remain unclear; however, the advent of several models of HIV1-associated peripheral neuropathy is helping unlock the mysteries surrounding HIV-SN. This chapter describes the known pathology of HIV1 and the resulting neuropathy syndromes, including descriptions of the models used to study this particular type of neuropathic pain.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
- Psychiatry and Mental health