Osteonecrosis is an uncommon but significant musculoskeletal disease characterized by focal areas of dead bone that often fail to heal even with intervention and has the potential to negatively impact a patient's quality of life. The knee and hip seem to be most susceptible to osteonecrosis although certain conditions, such as bisphosphonate treatment, have been associated with the development of osteonecrosis that is confined to the jaw. For most types of osteonecrosis, there remains much to be learned about either the pathophysiology of disease or the best course of treatment-questions that are best approached using an animal model. The different etiologies of the subclasses of osteonecrosis have led to a diverse number of animal models within the field. While no one animal model completely simulates all aspects of a particular type of osteonecrosis, models do exist that mimic various clinical aspects of osteonecrosis. This review discusses aspects of the common and novel animal models used to study juvenile osteonecrosis (Legg-Calvé-Perthes), trauma-induced osteonecrosis, alcohol- and corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis, and osteonecrosis of the jaw associated with anti-remodeling drug treatment.
- Animal models
- Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
- Osteonecrosis of the jaw
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine