We have previously shown that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene expression induced by interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the murine stromal cell line +/+.1-LDA 11 involves activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Furthermore, induction of GM-CSF gene expression due to release of arachidonic acid as a result of PLA2 activation was mediated by the transcriptional factor c-jun. In the present study, we have investigated the potential mechanism involved in the induction of c-jun gene expression by arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid induced transcription of c-jun mRNA. Downregulation of protein kinase C (PKC) by chronic exposure of stromal cells to the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl- phorbol-13-acetate (TPA; 400 nmol/L) did not effect c-jun expression induced by arachidonate. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with the PKC inhibitor, calphostin C (1 μol/L), caused a marked decrease of c-jun expression induced by TPA, but had no influence on c-jun expression induced by arachidonate. To explore the hypothesis that a tyrosine kinase signalling pathway, independent of PKC activation, was involved in arachidonate-induced c-jun expression, stromal cells were pretreated with the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, before challenge with arachidonic acid. Arachidonate (50 μmol/L)- induced c-jun expression was inhibited, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, by genistein. Genistein similarly inhibited c-jun expression in stromal cells exposed to IL-1 (500 U/mL) plus TNF-α (500 U/mL). The potential role of a tyrosine kinase pathway in arachidonate-mediated c-jun expression was further investigated by assaying the tyrosine kinase activity of cells challenged with arachidonic acid, IL-1, and TNF-α. Exposure of stromal cells to arachidonic acid induced a 2.1-fold increase in intracellular tyrosine kinase activity determined by phosphorylation of the synthetic peptide, raytide, in the presence of [γ-32P]-ATP. Similarly, IL-1 and TNF-α induced 1.7- and 2.4-fold increases in tyrosine protein kinase activity, respectively. The effect of arachidonic acid on tyrosine kinase activity was inhibited by genistein and was enhanced by sodium vanadate. The increase of protein tyrosine kinase activity detected in arachidonate-stimulated cells was associated, in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, with tyrosine phosphorylation of 240-, 40-, and 29-kD substrates. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a tyrosine phosphorylation process is triggered by arachidonate as an early event in the signalling pathway that leads to increased expression of c-jun. Thus, arachidonic acid may act as a messenger promoting the transfer of signals from the cell surface to the nucleus.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1995|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology