Are the predictors of hookah smoking differ from those of cigarette smoking? Report of a population-based study in Shiraz, Iran, 2010

Gholamreza Abdollahifard, Veda Vakili, Mina Danaei, Mehrdad Askarian, Laura Romito, Charles J. Palenik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations


Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use and effect of lifestyle factors on cigarette and hookah use among adult residents of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: In 2010, 1,000 participants were recruited in a multistage, random sampling cross-sectional population-based survey. Results: Response rate was 98%. Prevalence of cigarette smoking was 9.7%. Among cigarette users, 12.6% reported smoking <1 year; 13.4% smoked 1-2 years and 73.9% smoked>2 years. Almost half of those surveyed (48.9%) smoked <10 cigarettes per day (cpd); 28.4% smoked 10-15 cpd; 14.8% smoked 16-19 cpd, and 8%>20 cpd. Almost a quarter (20.4%) of the cigarette smokers tried to quit in the past year. Being male, married, aged 37-54, having higher perceived levels of stress, a non-manual occupation, and sedentary lifestyle were positively associated with cigarette smoking. Manual labor occupations, ousewife/jobless status, and going frequently to restaurants were positive predictors of hookah smoking. Conclusions: Compared to cigarettes, hookah smoking was more prevalent among Iranian adults. Approximately, the prevalence of hookah smoking in women is the same as men, whereas cigarette use was 31 times more common in men. Cigarette and hookah smoking were associated with less healthy lifestyle habits in both men and women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)459-466
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Preventive Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2013



  • Hookah
  • Iran
  • Shiraz
  • Tobacco

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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