Association between adherence measurements of metoprolol and health care utilization in older patients with heart failure

Wanzhu Tu, Andrew B. Morris, Jingjin Li, Jingwei Wu, James Young, D. Craig Brater, Michael Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Data from electronic dosing monitors and published pharmacokinetic parameters were used to derive medication adherence measures for immediate-release metoprolol and examine their association with health care utilization of outpatients aged 50 years or older with heart failure. Methods: We used a 1-compartment model and published population pharmacokinetic parameters to estimate mean plasma metoprolol concentrations for patients treated for 6 to 12 months. In the absence of directly measured plasma concentrations, we calculated the intended mean plasma concentration (Cp′ave) under the assumption of perfect adherence to the prescribed dose and frequency of administration. Projected mean plasma concentrations (Cpave) were estimated by use of data from recorded dosing times. In addition to taking adherence (percentage of dose taken) and scheduling adherence (percentage of doses taken on schedule), we calculated the deviation from the intended exposure (ΔCpave = Cp′ave - Cpave) and the proportion of intended exposure achieved by the patient (Cpave/Cp′ave). We assessed the association between the adherence measures and the numbers of emergency department visits and hospital admissions experienced by the patients. Results: Patients (N = 80) were aged 62 ± 8 years. Mean ΔCp ave and Cpave/Cp′ave were 7.9 ng/mL (SD, 10.7) and 0.6 (SD, 0.3), respectively. Log-linear models adjusted for patient functional status indicated that greater deviation from the intended metoprolol exposure (ΔCpave) was associated with increased numbers of emergency department visits (P ave/ Cp′ave) corresponded to a reduced number of emergency department visits (P = .0204) and hospital admissions (P = .0093). Taking adherence was univariately associated with both emergency department visits and hospital visits (P <.0001 and P = .0010, respectively). Scheduling adherence was associated with the number of emergency department visits (P = .0181) but not with the number of hospital admissions (P = .1602). Model selection procedures consistently chose the proposed measures over taking adherence and scheduling adherence. Conclusion: Deviation from the intended exposure and proportion of intended exposure achieved by the patient are valid adherence measures for immediate-release metoprolol and are associated with health care utilization. The potential utility of these measures for other β-adrenergic antagonists and perhaps other cardiovascular drugs should be investigated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)189-201
Number of pages13
JournalClinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume77
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2005
Externally publishedYes

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Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Metoprolol
Hospital Emergency Service
Heart Failure
Birds
Pharmacokinetics
Cardiovascular Agents
Adrenergic Antagonists
Medication Adherence
Patient Admission
Patient Compliance
Linear Models
Appointments and Schedules
Outpatients
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Association between adherence measurements of metoprolol and health care utilization in older patients with heart failure. / Tu, Wanzhu; Morris, Andrew B.; Li, Jingjin; Wu, Jingwei; Young, James; Brater, D. Craig; Murray, Michael.

In: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Vol. 77, No. 3, 03.2005, p. 189-201.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tu, Wanzhu ; Morris, Andrew B. ; Li, Jingjin ; Wu, Jingwei ; Young, James ; Brater, D. Craig ; Murray, Michael. / Association between adherence measurements of metoprolol and health care utilization in older patients with heart failure. In: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2005 ; Vol. 77, No. 3. pp. 189-201.
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abstract = "Objective: Data from electronic dosing monitors and published pharmacokinetic parameters were used to derive medication adherence measures for immediate-release metoprolol and examine their association with health care utilization of outpatients aged 50 years or older with heart failure. Methods: We used a 1-compartment model and published population pharmacokinetic parameters to estimate mean plasma metoprolol concentrations for patients treated for 6 to 12 months. In the absence of directly measured plasma concentrations, we calculated the intended mean plasma concentration (Cp′ave) under the assumption of perfect adherence to the prescribed dose and frequency of administration. Projected mean plasma concentrations (Cpave) were estimated by use of data from recorded dosing times. In addition to taking adherence (percentage of dose taken) and scheduling adherence (percentage of doses taken on schedule), we calculated the deviation from the intended exposure (ΔCpave = Cp′ave - Cpave) and the proportion of intended exposure achieved by the patient (Cpave/Cp′ave). We assessed the association between the adherence measures and the numbers of emergency department visits and hospital admissions experienced by the patients. Results: Patients (N = 80) were aged 62 ± 8 years. Mean ΔCp ave and Cpave/Cp′ave were 7.9 ng/mL (SD, 10.7) and 0.6 (SD, 0.3), respectively. Log-linear models adjusted for patient functional status indicated that greater deviation from the intended metoprolol exposure (ΔCpave) was associated with increased numbers of emergency department visits (P ave/ Cp′ave) corresponded to a reduced number of emergency department visits (P = .0204) and hospital admissions (P = .0093). Taking adherence was univariately associated with both emergency department visits and hospital visits (P <.0001 and P = .0010, respectively). Scheduling adherence was associated with the number of emergency department visits (P = .0181) but not with the number of hospital admissions (P = .1602). Model selection procedures consistently chose the proposed measures over taking adherence and scheduling adherence. Conclusion: Deviation from the intended exposure and proportion of intended exposure achieved by the patient are valid adherence measures for immediate-release metoprolol and are associated with health care utilization. The potential utility of these measures for other β-adrenergic antagonists and perhaps other cardiovascular drugs should be investigated.",
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T1 - Association between adherence measurements of metoprolol and health care utilization in older patients with heart failure

AU - Tu, Wanzhu

AU - Morris, Andrew B.

AU - Li, Jingjin

AU - Wu, Jingwei

AU - Young, James

AU - Brater, D. Craig

AU - Murray, Michael

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N2 - Objective: Data from electronic dosing monitors and published pharmacokinetic parameters were used to derive medication adherence measures for immediate-release metoprolol and examine their association with health care utilization of outpatients aged 50 years or older with heart failure. Methods: We used a 1-compartment model and published population pharmacokinetic parameters to estimate mean plasma metoprolol concentrations for patients treated for 6 to 12 months. In the absence of directly measured plasma concentrations, we calculated the intended mean plasma concentration (Cp′ave) under the assumption of perfect adherence to the prescribed dose and frequency of administration. Projected mean plasma concentrations (Cpave) were estimated by use of data from recorded dosing times. In addition to taking adherence (percentage of dose taken) and scheduling adherence (percentage of doses taken on schedule), we calculated the deviation from the intended exposure (ΔCpave = Cp′ave - Cpave) and the proportion of intended exposure achieved by the patient (Cpave/Cp′ave). We assessed the association between the adherence measures and the numbers of emergency department visits and hospital admissions experienced by the patients. Results: Patients (N = 80) were aged 62 ± 8 years. Mean ΔCp ave and Cpave/Cp′ave were 7.9 ng/mL (SD, 10.7) and 0.6 (SD, 0.3), respectively. Log-linear models adjusted for patient functional status indicated that greater deviation from the intended metoprolol exposure (ΔCpave) was associated with increased numbers of emergency department visits (P ave/ Cp′ave) corresponded to a reduced number of emergency department visits (P = .0204) and hospital admissions (P = .0093). Taking adherence was univariately associated with both emergency department visits and hospital visits (P <.0001 and P = .0010, respectively). Scheduling adherence was associated with the number of emergency department visits (P = .0181) but not with the number of hospital admissions (P = .1602). Model selection procedures consistently chose the proposed measures over taking adherence and scheduling adherence. Conclusion: Deviation from the intended exposure and proportion of intended exposure achieved by the patient are valid adherence measures for immediate-release metoprolol and are associated with health care utilization. The potential utility of these measures for other β-adrenergic antagonists and perhaps other cardiovascular drugs should be investigated.

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