The genes that encode for CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are located in the same region (CYP3A cluster) on chromosome 7. Midazolam (MDZ) is a substrate for both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. We hypothesize that MDZ disposition in vivo is associated with genotypes of the CYP3A cluster. A meta-analysis of the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters from seven clinical trials was carried out, in which MDZ was administered both intravenously and orally. DNA samples were available from 116 patients. There were significant ethnic differences in the allelic frequencies of these four common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP3A cluster. Significant linkage disequilibrium was found between CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*1A in Caucasians, and between CYP3A5*1 and CYP3A4*1B in African Americans. There were no differences in MDZ disposition in vivo between different genotypes, haplotypes and diplotypes in the CYP3A cluster (P>0.05). No significant differences in MDZ PK parameters were observed between Caucasians and African Americans. Women had higher weight-corrected systemic and oral clearance than men, but dose-adjusted AUC and bioavailability differences were not observed between sexes. The clinical importance of elevated CYP3A activity in women remains to be determined. The rGC's of MDZ PK parameters were between 0.3 and 13.6%. In conclusion, the meta-analysis of seven studies suggests that environmental factors explain the majority of CYP3A activity variation. Further studies are necessary to define the functional significance of SNPs in the CYP3A cluster and the effects of CYP3A genotypes on MDZ disposition in vivo.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine