Association of nut consumption with total and cause-specific mortality

Ying Bao, Jiali Han, Frank B. Hu, Edward L. Giovannucci, Meir J. Stampfer, Walter C. Willett, Charles S. Fuchs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

187 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Increased nut consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of major chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the association between nut consumption and mortality remains unclear. METHODS: We examined the association between nut consumption and subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 76,464 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2010) and 42,498 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010). Participants with a history of cancer, heart disease, or stroke were excluded. Nut consumption was assessed at baseline and updated every 2 to 4 years. RESULTS: During 3,038,853 person-years of follow-up, 16,200 women and 11,229 men died. Nut consumption was inversely associated with total mortality among both women and men, after adjustment for other known or suspected risk factors. The pooled multivariate hazard ratios for death among participants who ate nuts, as compared with those who did not, were 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 0.96) for the consumption of nuts less than once per week, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for once per week, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.90) for two to four times per week, 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.91) for five or six times per week, and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73 to 0.86) for seven or more times per week (P<0.001 for trend). Significant inverse associations were also observed between nut consumption and deaths due to cancer, heart disease, and respiratory disease. CONCLUSIONS: In two large, independent cohorts of nurses and other health professionals, the frequency of nut consumption was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality, independently of other predictors of death.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2001-2011
Number of pages11
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume369
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

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Nuts
Mortality
Confidence Intervals
Heart Diseases
Nurses
Men's Health
Health
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Neoplasms
Chronic Disease
Cardiovascular Diseases
Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Bao, Y., Han, J., Hu, F. B., Giovannucci, E. L., Stampfer, M. J., Willett, W. C., & Fuchs, C. S. (2013). Association of nut consumption with total and cause-specific mortality. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(21), 2001-2011. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1307352

Association of nut consumption with total and cause-specific mortality. / Bao, Ying; Han, Jiali; Hu, Frank B.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Fuchs, Charles S.

In: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 369, No. 21, 01.01.2013, p. 2001-2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bao, Y, Han, J, Hu, FB, Giovannucci, EL, Stampfer, MJ, Willett, WC & Fuchs, CS 2013, 'Association of nut consumption with total and cause-specific mortality', New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 369, no. 21, pp. 2001-2011. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1307352
Bao, Ying ; Han, Jiali ; Hu, Frank B. ; Giovannucci, Edward L. ; Stampfer, Meir J. ; Willett, Walter C. ; Fuchs, Charles S. / Association of nut consumption with total and cause-specific mortality. In: New England Journal of Medicine. 2013 ; Vol. 369, No. 21. pp. 2001-2011.
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AU - Willett, Walter C.

AU - Fuchs, Charles S.

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AB - BACKGROUND: Increased nut consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of major chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the association between nut consumption and mortality remains unclear. METHODS: We examined the association between nut consumption and subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 76,464 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2010) and 42,498 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010). Participants with a history of cancer, heart disease, or stroke were excluded. Nut consumption was assessed at baseline and updated every 2 to 4 years. RESULTS: During 3,038,853 person-years of follow-up, 16,200 women and 11,229 men died. Nut consumption was inversely associated with total mortality among both women and men, after adjustment for other known or suspected risk factors. The pooled multivariate hazard ratios for death among participants who ate nuts, as compared with those who did not, were 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 0.96) for the consumption of nuts less than once per week, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for once per week, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.90) for two to four times per week, 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.91) for five or six times per week, and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73 to 0.86) for seven or more times per week (P<0.001 for trend). Significant inverse associations were also observed between nut consumption and deaths due to cancer, heart disease, and respiratory disease. CONCLUSIONS: In two large, independent cohorts of nurses and other health professionals, the frequency of nut consumption was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality, independently of other predictors of death.

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