2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent developmental teratogen inducing oxidative stress and sublethal changes in multiple organs, provokes developmental renal injuries. In this study, we investigated TCDD-induced biochemical changes and the therapeutic efficacy of photobiomodulation (670 nm; 4 J/cm2) on oxidative stress in chicken kidneys during development. Eggs were injected once prior to incubation with TCDD (2 pg/g or 200 pg/g) or sunflower oil vehicle control. Half of the eggs in each dose group were then treated with red light once per day through embryonic day 20 (E20). Upon hatching at E21, the kidneys were collected and assayed for glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, superoxide dimutase, and glutathione-S-transferase activities, as well as reduced glutathione and ATP levels, and lipid peroxidation. TCDD exposure alone suppressed the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, increased lipid peroxidation, and depleted available ATP. The biochemical indicators of oxidative and energy stress in the kidney were reversed by daily phototherapy, restoring ATP and glutathione contents and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities to control levels. Photobiomodulation also normalized the level of lipid peroxidation increased by TCDD exposure. The results of this study suggest that 670 nm photobiomodulation may be useful as a noninvasive treatment for renal injury resulting from chemically induced cellular oxidative and energy stress.
- Antioxidant enzymes
- Oxidative stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis