In addition to their known cytotoxic effects, chemotherapeutic agents can trigger cytokine production in tumor cells. Moreover, many chemotherapeutic agents are potent pro-oxidative stressors. Although the lipid mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF) is synthesized in response to oxidative stress, and many epidermal carcinomas express PAF receptors (PAF-R) linked to cytokine production, it is not known whether PAF is involved in chemotherapeutic agent-induced cytokine production. These studies examined the role of the PAF system in chemotherapy-mediated cytokine production using a model system created by retroviral-mediated transduction of the PAF-R-negative human epidermal carcinoma cell line KB with the human PAF-R. The presence of the PAF-R in KB cells resulted in augmentation of the production of cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α induced by the chemotherapeutic agents etoposide and mitomycin C. These effects were specific for the PAF-R, as expression of the G protein-coupled receptor for fMLP did not affect chemotherapeutic agent-induced cytokine production. Moreover, ablation of the native PAF-R in the epithelial cell line HaCaT using an inducible antisense PAF-R strategy inhibited etoposide-induced cytokine production. Oxidative stress and the transcription factor NF-κB were found to be involved in this augmentative effect, because it was mimicked by the oxidant tert-butyl-hydroperoxide, which was blocked both by antioxidants and by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway using a super-repressor IκBM mutant. These studies provide evidence for a novel pathway by which the epidermal PAF-R can augment chemotherapy-induced cytokine production through an NF-κB-dependent process.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy