Autophagy and heterophagy dysregulation leads to retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction and development of age-related macular degeneration

Kai Kaarniranta, Debasish Sinha, Janusz Blasiak, Anu Kauppinen, Zoltán Veréb, Antero Salminen, Michael E. Boulton, Goran Petrovski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

138 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex, degenerative and progressive eye disease that usually does not lead to complete blindness, but can result in severe loss of central vision. Risk factors for AMD include age, genetics, diet, smoking, oxidative stress and many cardiovascular-associated risk factors. Autophagy is a cellular housekeeping process that removes damaged organelles and protein aggregates, whereas heterophagy, in the case of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is the phagocytosis of exogenous photoreceptor outer segments. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both autophagy and heterophagy are highly active in the RPE. To date, there is increasing evidence that constant oxidative stress impairs autophagy and heterophagy, as well as increases protein aggregation and causes inflammasome activation leading to the pathological phenotype of AMD. This review ties together these crucial pathological topics and reflects upon autophagy as a potential therapeutic target in AMD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)973-984
Number of pages12
JournalAutophagy
Volume9
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Retinal Pigment Epithelium
Autophagy
Macular Degeneration
Oxidative Stress
Inflammasomes
Housekeeping
Eye Diseases
Blindness
Phagocytosis
Organelles
Smoking
Diet
Phenotype
Proteins
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • AMD
  • Autophagy
  • Heterophagy
  • Inflammasome
  • Lysosome
  • Oxidative stress
  • Phagocytosis
  • Proteasome
  • RPE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Kaarniranta, K., Sinha, D., Blasiak, J., Kauppinen, A., Veréb, Z., Salminen, A., ... Petrovski, G. (2013). Autophagy and heterophagy dysregulation leads to retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction and development of age-related macular degeneration. Autophagy, 9(7), 973-984. https://doi.org/10.4161/auto.24546

Autophagy and heterophagy dysregulation leads to retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction and development of age-related macular degeneration. / Kaarniranta, Kai; Sinha, Debasish; Blasiak, Janusz; Kauppinen, Anu; Veréb, Zoltán; Salminen, Antero; Boulton, Michael E.; Petrovski, Goran.

In: Autophagy, Vol. 9, No. 7, 07.2013, p. 973-984.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kaarniranta, K, Sinha, D, Blasiak, J, Kauppinen, A, Veréb, Z, Salminen, A, Boulton, ME & Petrovski, G 2013, 'Autophagy and heterophagy dysregulation leads to retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction and development of age-related macular degeneration', Autophagy, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 973-984. https://doi.org/10.4161/auto.24546
Kaarniranta, Kai ; Sinha, Debasish ; Blasiak, Janusz ; Kauppinen, Anu ; Veréb, Zoltán ; Salminen, Antero ; Boulton, Michael E. ; Petrovski, Goran. / Autophagy and heterophagy dysregulation leads to retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction and development of age-related macular degeneration. In: Autophagy. 2013 ; Vol. 9, No. 7. pp. 973-984.
@article{b92fcffa28d645e0a6eb1d8bde173817,
title = "Autophagy and heterophagy dysregulation leads to retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction and development of age-related macular degeneration",
abstract = "Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex, degenerative and progressive eye disease that usually does not lead to complete blindness, but can result in severe loss of central vision. Risk factors for AMD include age, genetics, diet, smoking, oxidative stress and many cardiovascular-associated risk factors. Autophagy is a cellular housekeeping process that removes damaged organelles and protein aggregates, whereas heterophagy, in the case of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is the phagocytosis of exogenous photoreceptor outer segments. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both autophagy and heterophagy are highly active in the RPE. To date, there is increasing evidence that constant oxidative stress impairs autophagy and heterophagy, as well as increases protein aggregation and causes inflammasome activation leading to the pathological phenotype of AMD. This review ties together these crucial pathological topics and reflects upon autophagy as a potential therapeutic target in AMD.",
keywords = "AMD, Autophagy, Heterophagy, Inflammasome, Lysosome, Oxidative stress, Phagocytosis, Proteasome, RPE",
author = "Kai Kaarniranta and Debasish Sinha and Janusz Blasiak and Anu Kauppinen and Zolt{\'a}n Ver{\'e}b and Antero Salminen and Boulton, {Michael E.} and Goran Petrovski",
year = "2013",
month = "7",
doi = "10.4161/auto.24546",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "9",
pages = "973--984",
journal = "Autophagy",
issn = "1554-8627",
publisher = "Landes Bioscience",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Autophagy and heterophagy dysregulation leads to retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction and development of age-related macular degeneration

AU - Kaarniranta, Kai

AU - Sinha, Debasish

AU - Blasiak, Janusz

AU - Kauppinen, Anu

AU - Veréb, Zoltán

AU - Salminen, Antero

AU - Boulton, Michael E.

AU - Petrovski, Goran

PY - 2013/7

Y1 - 2013/7

N2 - Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex, degenerative and progressive eye disease that usually does not lead to complete blindness, but can result in severe loss of central vision. Risk factors for AMD include age, genetics, diet, smoking, oxidative stress and many cardiovascular-associated risk factors. Autophagy is a cellular housekeeping process that removes damaged organelles and protein aggregates, whereas heterophagy, in the case of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is the phagocytosis of exogenous photoreceptor outer segments. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both autophagy and heterophagy are highly active in the RPE. To date, there is increasing evidence that constant oxidative stress impairs autophagy and heterophagy, as well as increases protein aggregation and causes inflammasome activation leading to the pathological phenotype of AMD. This review ties together these crucial pathological topics and reflects upon autophagy as a potential therapeutic target in AMD.

AB - Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex, degenerative and progressive eye disease that usually does not lead to complete blindness, but can result in severe loss of central vision. Risk factors for AMD include age, genetics, diet, smoking, oxidative stress and many cardiovascular-associated risk factors. Autophagy is a cellular housekeeping process that removes damaged organelles and protein aggregates, whereas heterophagy, in the case of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is the phagocytosis of exogenous photoreceptor outer segments. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both autophagy and heterophagy are highly active in the RPE. To date, there is increasing evidence that constant oxidative stress impairs autophagy and heterophagy, as well as increases protein aggregation and causes inflammasome activation leading to the pathological phenotype of AMD. This review ties together these crucial pathological topics and reflects upon autophagy as a potential therapeutic target in AMD.

KW - AMD

KW - Autophagy

KW - Heterophagy

KW - Inflammasome

KW - Lysosome

KW - Oxidative stress

KW - Phagocytosis

KW - Proteasome

KW - RPE

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84880797112&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84880797112&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.4161/auto.24546

DO - 10.4161/auto.24546

M3 - Article

VL - 9

SP - 973

EP - 984

JO - Autophagy

JF - Autophagy

SN - 1554-8627

IS - 7

ER -