Bacteria thrive under extreme conditions and they can adjust easily so as to improve their fitness for survival. This review covers bacterial tolerance and resistance to the β-lactam antibiotics. It describes penicillin-binding proteins and β-lactamases. Under penicillin-binding proteins, enzymes of cell wall biosynthesis and β-lactam-sensing proteins are introduced. Under β-lactamases, the four classes of β-lactamases are described.
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