Biaxial flexural strength and indentation fracture toughness of three new dental core ceramics

W. C. Wagner, T. M. Chu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

160 Scopus citations


The traditional gold and porcelain fused to metal crowns have been challenged by the esthetic all-ceramic crown materials. Only previous experience with poor mechanical properties, lack of standardized tooth preparation, and processing challenges have prevented universal acceptance of all-ceramic crowns. However, stronger and tougher ceramics and unique processing methods for ceramics have been developed in the past 20 years. In this study, three new ceramic crown core materials were tested to compare their biaxial flexural strength and indentation fracture toughness. Ten specimens of Empress, In-Ceram, and Procera AllCeram ceramics were prepared according to their manufacturers' recommendations. The results revealed significant differences in flexural strength for the three materials (p ≤ 0.05). The average flexural strengths of AllCeram, In Ceram, and Empress ceramics were 687 MPa, 352 MPa, and 134 MPa respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the fracture toughness of Procera (4.48 MPa · m1/2) and In-Ceram ceramics (4.49 MPa · m1/2); however, both ceramics had significantly higher fracture toughness (p < 0.005) than Empress ceramic (1.74 MPa · m1/2).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)140-144
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 1996
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oral Surgery

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