Biomarkers of β-Cell Stress and Death in Type 1 Diabetes

Raghavendra G. Mirmira, Emily K. Sims, Farooq Syed, Carmella Evans-Molina

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

14 Scopus citations


The hallmark of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a decline in functional β-cell mass arising as a result of autoimmunity. Immunomodulatory interventions at disease onset have resulted in partial stabilization of β-cell function, but full recovery of insulin secretion has remained elusive. Revised efforts have focused on disease prevention through interventions administered at earlier disease stages. To support this paradigm, there is a parallel effort ongoing to identify circulating biomarkers that have the potential to identify stress and death of the islet β-cells. Whereas no definitive biomarker(s) have been fully validated, several approaches hold promise that T1D can be reliably identified in the pre-symptomatic phase, such that either β-cell preservation or immunomodulatory agents might be employed in at-risk populations. This review summarizes the most promising protein- and nucleic acid-based biomarkers discovered to date and reviews the context in which they have been studied.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number95
JournalCurrent Diabetes Reports
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016


  • Biomarkers
  • Cell-free insulin DNA
  • Proinsulin
  • Proinsulin/C-peptide ratio
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Unmethylated insulin DNA
  • miRNA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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