Biopsychological markers of distress in informal caregivers

Linda Lindsey Davis, Michael Weaver, Edward Zamrini, Alan Stevens, Duck Hee Kang, C. Richard Parker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background. Thirty caregiving wives participated in a study of caregiving distress and negative mood (depressive symptoms) by making diary entries on stressful caregiving situations and collecting saliva samples 4 times a day. At the end of the 7-day study period, caregivers' salivary cortisol production was compared with their diary entries and correlated with pencil and paper self-report scores of caregiver distress and depressive symptoms. Findings. Despite the inability to control a number of factors thought to confound cortisol production (exercise, smoking, alcohol ingestion, and prescription medications), there was a statistically significant difference between No Caregiving and Caregiving cortisol, F(1,739) = 7.67, P = 0.006, with cortisol production higher when caregiving events occurred. However, efforts to code specific types of caregiving situations (e.g., 1 = indirect care; 4 = AD problem behavior care) did not further differentiate cortisol production. Although caregivers' self-reports for the same 7-day period indicated they were depressed, pencil-and-paper measures of distress and negative affect were not significantly correlated with cortisol production. Conclusions and Recommendations. The finding that this caregiving group was significantly stressed by caregiving, as evidenced by increased cortisol production during caregiving episodes, verifies the importance of further exploration of specific caregiving situations as contributory factors in caregiver health and well-being. In that saliva is a relatively economical and comparatively noninvasive biological data source for community-based stress studies, methodological limitations of the study are identified and 5 recommendations are made for future biological marker studies of caregiver distress in community-based settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)90-99
Number of pages10
JournalBiological Research for Nursing
Volume6
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Caregivers
Hydrocortisone
Saliva
Self Report
Depression
Information Storage and Retrieval
Spouses
Prescriptions
Eating
Biomarkers
Smoking
Alcohols
Exercise
Health

Keywords

  • Biological markers
  • Caregiving stress
  • Cortisol
  • Dementia
  • Home care
  • Informal caregiving

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Research and Theory

Cite this

Davis, L. L., Weaver, M., Zamrini, E., Stevens, A., Kang, D. H., & Parker, C. R. (2004). Biopsychological markers of distress in informal caregivers. Biological Research for Nursing, 6(2), 90-99. https://doi.org/10.1177/1099800404267353

Biopsychological markers of distress in informal caregivers. / Davis, Linda Lindsey; Weaver, Michael; Zamrini, Edward; Stevens, Alan; Kang, Duck Hee; Parker, C. Richard.

In: Biological Research for Nursing, Vol. 6, No. 2, 10.2004, p. 90-99.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Davis, LL, Weaver, M, Zamrini, E, Stevens, A, Kang, DH & Parker, CR 2004, 'Biopsychological markers of distress in informal caregivers', Biological Research for Nursing, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 90-99. https://doi.org/10.1177/1099800404267353
Davis LL, Weaver M, Zamrini E, Stevens A, Kang DH, Parker CR. Biopsychological markers of distress in informal caregivers. Biological Research for Nursing. 2004 Oct;6(2):90-99. https://doi.org/10.1177/1099800404267353
Davis, Linda Lindsey ; Weaver, Michael ; Zamrini, Edward ; Stevens, Alan ; Kang, Duck Hee ; Parker, C. Richard. / Biopsychological markers of distress in informal caregivers. In: Biological Research for Nursing. 2004 ; Vol. 6, No. 2. pp. 90-99.
@article{eaae3eebd07547fc88e79f7d880a33ab,
title = "Biopsychological markers of distress in informal caregivers",
abstract = "Background. Thirty caregiving wives participated in a study of caregiving distress and negative mood (depressive symptoms) by making diary entries on stressful caregiving situations and collecting saliva samples 4 times a day. At the end of the 7-day study period, caregivers' salivary cortisol production was compared with their diary entries and correlated with pencil and paper self-report scores of caregiver distress and depressive symptoms. Findings. Despite the inability to control a number of factors thought to confound cortisol production (exercise, smoking, alcohol ingestion, and prescription medications), there was a statistically significant difference between No Caregiving and Caregiving cortisol, F(1,739) = 7.67, P = 0.006, with cortisol production higher when caregiving events occurred. However, efforts to code specific types of caregiving situations (e.g., 1 = indirect care; 4 = AD problem behavior care) did not further differentiate cortisol production. Although caregivers' self-reports for the same 7-day period indicated they were depressed, pencil-and-paper measures of distress and negative affect were not significantly correlated with cortisol production. Conclusions and Recommendations. The finding that this caregiving group was significantly stressed by caregiving, as evidenced by increased cortisol production during caregiving episodes, verifies the importance of further exploration of specific caregiving situations as contributory factors in caregiver health and well-being. In that saliva is a relatively economical and comparatively noninvasive biological data source for community-based stress studies, methodological limitations of the study are identified and 5 recommendations are made for future biological marker studies of caregiver distress in community-based settings.",
keywords = "Biological markers, Caregiving stress, Cortisol, Dementia, Home care, Informal caregiving",
author = "Davis, {Linda Lindsey} and Michael Weaver and Edward Zamrini and Alan Stevens and Kang, {Duck Hee} and Parker, {C. Richard}",
year = "2004",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1177/1099800404267353",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "6",
pages = "90--99",
journal = "Biological Research for Nursing",
issn = "1099-8004",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Biopsychological markers of distress in informal caregivers

AU - Davis, Linda Lindsey

AU - Weaver, Michael

AU - Zamrini, Edward

AU - Stevens, Alan

AU - Kang, Duck Hee

AU - Parker, C. Richard

PY - 2004/10

Y1 - 2004/10

N2 - Background. Thirty caregiving wives participated in a study of caregiving distress and negative mood (depressive symptoms) by making diary entries on stressful caregiving situations and collecting saliva samples 4 times a day. At the end of the 7-day study period, caregivers' salivary cortisol production was compared with their diary entries and correlated with pencil and paper self-report scores of caregiver distress and depressive symptoms. Findings. Despite the inability to control a number of factors thought to confound cortisol production (exercise, smoking, alcohol ingestion, and prescription medications), there was a statistically significant difference between No Caregiving and Caregiving cortisol, F(1,739) = 7.67, P = 0.006, with cortisol production higher when caregiving events occurred. However, efforts to code specific types of caregiving situations (e.g., 1 = indirect care; 4 = AD problem behavior care) did not further differentiate cortisol production. Although caregivers' self-reports for the same 7-day period indicated they were depressed, pencil-and-paper measures of distress and negative affect were not significantly correlated with cortisol production. Conclusions and Recommendations. The finding that this caregiving group was significantly stressed by caregiving, as evidenced by increased cortisol production during caregiving episodes, verifies the importance of further exploration of specific caregiving situations as contributory factors in caregiver health and well-being. In that saliva is a relatively economical and comparatively noninvasive biological data source for community-based stress studies, methodological limitations of the study are identified and 5 recommendations are made for future biological marker studies of caregiver distress in community-based settings.

AB - Background. Thirty caregiving wives participated in a study of caregiving distress and negative mood (depressive symptoms) by making diary entries on stressful caregiving situations and collecting saliva samples 4 times a day. At the end of the 7-day study period, caregivers' salivary cortisol production was compared with their diary entries and correlated with pencil and paper self-report scores of caregiver distress and depressive symptoms. Findings. Despite the inability to control a number of factors thought to confound cortisol production (exercise, smoking, alcohol ingestion, and prescription medications), there was a statistically significant difference between No Caregiving and Caregiving cortisol, F(1,739) = 7.67, P = 0.006, with cortisol production higher when caregiving events occurred. However, efforts to code specific types of caregiving situations (e.g., 1 = indirect care; 4 = AD problem behavior care) did not further differentiate cortisol production. Although caregivers' self-reports for the same 7-day period indicated they were depressed, pencil-and-paper measures of distress and negative affect were not significantly correlated with cortisol production. Conclusions and Recommendations. The finding that this caregiving group was significantly stressed by caregiving, as evidenced by increased cortisol production during caregiving episodes, verifies the importance of further exploration of specific caregiving situations as contributory factors in caregiver health and well-being. In that saliva is a relatively economical and comparatively noninvasive biological data source for community-based stress studies, methodological limitations of the study are identified and 5 recommendations are made for future biological marker studies of caregiver distress in community-based settings.

KW - Biological markers

KW - Caregiving stress

KW - Cortisol

KW - Dementia

KW - Home care

KW - Informal caregiving

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=6944244182&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=6944244182&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/1099800404267353

DO - 10.1177/1099800404267353

M3 - Article

VL - 6

SP - 90

EP - 99

JO - Biological Research for Nursing

JF - Biological Research for Nursing

SN - 1099-8004

IS - 2

ER -