Black Adult Patients With Acute Liver Failure Are Sicker and More Likely to Undergo Liver Transplantation Than White Patients

Lauren Nephew, Zahra Zia, Marwan Ghabril, Eric Orman, Craig Lammert, Naga Chalasani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Racial and ethnic differences in the presentation and outcomes of patients wait-listed with acute liver failure (ALF) have not been explored. Adult patients with ALF wait-listed for liver transplantation (LT) from 2002 to 2016 were investigated using the United Network for Organ Sharing database. Clinical characteristics and causative etiologies were compared between white, black, Hispanic, and Asian patients with ALF who were wait-listed as status 1. A competing risk analysis was used to explore differences in LT and wait-list removal rates. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to explore differences in 1-year posttransplant survival. There were 8208 patients wait-listed with a primary diagnosis of ALF; 4501 were wait-listed as status 1 (55.3% of whites, 64.4% of blacks, 51.6% of Hispanics, 40.7% of Asians; P < 0.001). Black patients had higher bilirubin and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease at wait-listing than other groups. White patients were the most likely to have acetaminophen toxicity as a causative etiology, whereas black patients were the most likely to have autoimmune liver disease. Black patients were significantly more likely to undergo LT than white patients (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.30). There was no difference in wait-list removal because of death or clinical deterioration among racial/ethnic groups. The 1-year posttransplant survival was lowest in black patients (79.6%) versus white (82.8%), Hispanic (83.9%), and Asian (89.3%) patients (P = 0.02). In conclusion, etiologies of ALF vary by race and ethnicity. Black patients with ALF were more likely to be wait-listed as status 1 and undergo LT than white patients, but they were sicker at presentation. The 1-year posttransplant survival rate was lowest among black patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalLiver Transplantation
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Acute Liver Failure
Liver Transplantation
Hispanic Americans
End Stage Liver Disease
Survival
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Acetaminophen
Bilirubin
Ethnic Groups
Autoimmune Diseases
Liver Diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Hepatology
  • Transplantation

Cite this

@article{9d10eccbc38942db9132c9e83e7e250c,
title = "Black Adult Patients With Acute Liver Failure Are Sicker and More Likely to Undergo Liver Transplantation Than White Patients",
abstract = "Racial and ethnic differences in the presentation and outcomes of patients wait-listed with acute liver failure (ALF) have not been explored. Adult patients with ALF wait-listed for liver transplantation (LT) from 2002 to 2016 were investigated using the United Network for Organ Sharing database. Clinical characteristics and causative etiologies were compared between white, black, Hispanic, and Asian patients with ALF who were wait-listed as status 1. A competing risk analysis was used to explore differences in LT and wait-list removal rates. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to explore differences in 1-year posttransplant survival. There were 8208 patients wait-listed with a primary diagnosis of ALF; 4501 were wait-listed as status 1 (55.3{\%} of whites, 64.4{\%} of blacks, 51.6{\%} of Hispanics, 40.7{\%} of Asians; P < 0.001). Black patients had higher bilirubin and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease at wait-listing than other groups. White patients were the most likely to have acetaminophen toxicity as a causative etiology, whereas black patients were the most likely to have autoimmune liver disease. Black patients were significantly more likely to undergo LT than white patients (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95{\%} confidence interval, 1.08-1.30). There was no difference in wait-list removal because of death or clinical deterioration among racial/ethnic groups. The 1-year posttransplant survival was lowest in black patients (79.6{\%}) versus white (82.8{\%}), Hispanic (83.9{\%}), and Asian (89.3{\%}) patients (P = 0.02). In conclusion, etiologies of ALF vary by race and ethnicity. Black patients with ALF were more likely to be wait-listed as status 1 and undergo LT than white patients, but they were sicker at presentation. The 1-year posttransplant survival rate was lowest among black patients.",
author = "Lauren Nephew and Zahra Zia and Marwan Ghabril and Eric Orman and Craig Lammert and Naga Chalasani",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/lt.25594",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Liver Transplantation",
issn = "1527-6465",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Ltd",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Black Adult Patients With Acute Liver Failure Are Sicker and More Likely to Undergo Liver Transplantation Than White Patients

AU - Nephew, Lauren

AU - Zia, Zahra

AU - Ghabril, Marwan

AU - Orman, Eric

AU - Lammert, Craig

AU - Chalasani, Naga

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Racial and ethnic differences in the presentation and outcomes of patients wait-listed with acute liver failure (ALF) have not been explored. Adult patients with ALF wait-listed for liver transplantation (LT) from 2002 to 2016 were investigated using the United Network for Organ Sharing database. Clinical characteristics and causative etiologies were compared between white, black, Hispanic, and Asian patients with ALF who were wait-listed as status 1. A competing risk analysis was used to explore differences in LT and wait-list removal rates. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to explore differences in 1-year posttransplant survival. There were 8208 patients wait-listed with a primary diagnosis of ALF; 4501 were wait-listed as status 1 (55.3% of whites, 64.4% of blacks, 51.6% of Hispanics, 40.7% of Asians; P < 0.001). Black patients had higher bilirubin and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease at wait-listing than other groups. White patients were the most likely to have acetaminophen toxicity as a causative etiology, whereas black patients were the most likely to have autoimmune liver disease. Black patients were significantly more likely to undergo LT than white patients (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.30). There was no difference in wait-list removal because of death or clinical deterioration among racial/ethnic groups. The 1-year posttransplant survival was lowest in black patients (79.6%) versus white (82.8%), Hispanic (83.9%), and Asian (89.3%) patients (P = 0.02). In conclusion, etiologies of ALF vary by race and ethnicity. Black patients with ALF were more likely to be wait-listed as status 1 and undergo LT than white patients, but they were sicker at presentation. The 1-year posttransplant survival rate was lowest among black patients.

AB - Racial and ethnic differences in the presentation and outcomes of patients wait-listed with acute liver failure (ALF) have not been explored. Adult patients with ALF wait-listed for liver transplantation (LT) from 2002 to 2016 were investigated using the United Network for Organ Sharing database. Clinical characteristics and causative etiologies were compared between white, black, Hispanic, and Asian patients with ALF who were wait-listed as status 1. A competing risk analysis was used to explore differences in LT and wait-list removal rates. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to explore differences in 1-year posttransplant survival. There were 8208 patients wait-listed with a primary diagnosis of ALF; 4501 were wait-listed as status 1 (55.3% of whites, 64.4% of blacks, 51.6% of Hispanics, 40.7% of Asians; P < 0.001). Black patients had higher bilirubin and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease at wait-listing than other groups. White patients were the most likely to have acetaminophen toxicity as a causative etiology, whereas black patients were the most likely to have autoimmune liver disease. Black patients were significantly more likely to undergo LT than white patients (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.30). There was no difference in wait-list removal because of death or clinical deterioration among racial/ethnic groups. The 1-year posttransplant survival was lowest in black patients (79.6%) versus white (82.8%), Hispanic (83.9%), and Asian (89.3%) patients (P = 0.02). In conclusion, etiologies of ALF vary by race and ethnicity. Black patients with ALF were more likely to be wait-listed as status 1 and undergo LT than white patients, but they were sicker at presentation. The 1-year posttransplant survival rate was lowest among black patients.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85070323645&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85070323645&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/lt.25594

DO - 10.1002/lt.25594

M3 - Article

JO - Liver Transplantation

JF - Liver Transplantation

SN - 1527-6465

ER -